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Anthro 1010-Vocab 1

Chapter 1

TermDefinition
Anthropology A discipline that studies humans, focusing on the differences and similarities, both biological and cultural, in human populations
Holistic Refers to an approach that studies many aspects of a multifaceted system
Biological (Physical) Anthropology The study of humans as biological organisms, dealing with the emergence and evolution of humans and with contemporary biological variations among human populations
Cultural Anthropology The study of cultural variation and universals in the past and present
Applied or Practicing Anthropology The branch of anthropology that concerns itself with applying anthropological knowledge to achieve practical goals.
Human Paleontology or paleoanthropology The study of the emergence of humans and their later physical evolution
Human Variation The study of how and why contemporary human populations vary biologically
Fossils The hardened remains or impressions of plants and animals that lived in the past
Primate A member of the mammalian order Primates, divided into the two suborders of prosimians and anthropoieds
Primatologists People who study primates
Homo Sapiens All living people belong to this biological species, which means that all human populations on earth can successfully interbreed
Archeology The branch of anthropology that seeks to reconstruct the daily life and customs of people who lived in the past and to trace and explain cultural changes
Prehistory The time before written records
Historical archeology A speciality within archeology that studies the material remains of recent peoples who left written records
Anthropological Linguistics The anthropological study of languages
Historical Linguistics The study of how languages are constructed
Descriptive (Structural) Linguistics The study of how languages are constructed
Sociolinguistics The study of cultural and subcultural patterns of speaking in different social contexts
Ethnology The study of how and why recent cultures differ are similar
Ethnographer A person who spends more time living with, interviewing, and observing a group of people to describe their customs.
Ethnography A description of a society's customary behaviors and ideas.
Ethnohistorian An ethnologist who uses historical documents to study how a particular culture has changed over time
Cross-cultural researcher An ethnologist who uses ethnographic data about many societies to test possible explanations of cultural variation to discover general patterns about cultural traits--what is universal, what the consequences of the variability might be.
Created by: Sejsarah
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