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CH 8 political

massa Political Geog

A boundary that existed before the cultural landscape emerged and stayed in place while people moved in to surround the surrounding area. Ex. the 39th parallel separating US and Canada. Antecedent Boundary
A state whose territory is decidedly long and narrow in that its length is at least 6 times greater than its width. Ex. Chile Elongated State
Boundaries that coincide with cultural breaks in the landscape such as language, religion and ethnicity Cultural Political Boundaries
A piece of territory that is surrounded by another political unit of which it is not part. EX. Lesotho Enclave
A bounded (non-island) piece of territory that is part of a particular state but lies separated from it by the territory of another state. Exclave
A state whose territory consists of several separated parts, not a contiguous whole. The parts may be separated by other states or water. Examples. The US The Philippines, and Japan Fragmented State
Zone of advanced penetration, usually of contention, an area not fully integrated into a politically organized area. Frontier
Political boundaries defined and delimited and at times demarcated as straight lines or arcs. Ex US Canada Border 39 degrees from Puget Sound to Lake of the Woods Minn. Geometric Boundaries
A term associated with the work of Robert Sack that describes the efforts of Human Societies to influence events and achieve social goals social goals by exerting and attempting to enforce control over specific Geographic Areas. Human Territoriality
An interior country or state that is surrounded by other countries possessing no Sea Coast of its own. Landlocked
Legally a term encompassing all citizens of a state. But most definitions now tend to refer to a tightly knit group of people possessing bonds of ethnicity religion language and other cultural attributes Such homogeneity exists in very few states. Nation
The desire on behalf of a group of people that sees its self as a nation to achieve self government or sovereignty through the promotion of a Nation State. Nationalism
Theoretically, a recognized member of the modern state system possessing sovereignty and occupied by people who see themselves as a single united nation. This is realized almost nowhere. nonetheless the term is often used as a synonym for nation or state Nation State
Political Boundaries that coincide with prominent physical features in the natural landscape i.e. a river crest of mountain range. Physical Political Boundaries
A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state. South Africa surrounds Lesotho and is perforated by Lesotho which is an enclave within South Africa. Perforated State
A type of state territorial shape that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main body of the state territory. Thailand is an example. Prorupted State
A political Boundary that has ceased to function but the imprint of which can still be detected on the cultural landscape. Ex many places in Texas New Mexico and Arizona still show the cultural imprint of Mexico quite strong. Relict Boundary
A principle of international relations that holds that the final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states. Sovereignty
A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by a significant portion of the international community. State must also contain a permanent resident population, an organized economy, and money system. State
A political boundary that developed contemporaneously with the evolution of the major elements of the cultural landscape through which it passes. Subsequent Boundary
A political boundary placed by powerful outsiders on a developed human landscape. This usually ignores existing cultural patterns such as the border which now divides North and South Korea. Superimposed boundary
A state whose government is under control of a ruler who is deemed to be divinely guided or under control of a group of religious leaders, ex post Khomeini Iran. Theocracy
Forces that tend to divide a country. Centrifugal Force
Forces that unite and bind a country together Centripetal Forces
Rule by an alien power over a subordinate people and place. Creates unequal political, economic and cultural relations, with the alien power exploiting the colonized country at will. Colonialism
In geography a term with several connotations. Core refers to the center or heart. The core area of a nation state is constituted by the national heartland-the largest population cluster and most productive region. Also the region with the lead city. Core Area
A political territory wherein the government the government represents several entities with the nation state where they have common interests i.e. defense, foreign affairs etc. yet allows these various entities to have their own laws policies and customc Federal State
In some cases positioned in contested territory as testimony to a county’s earnest in keeping the territory. In the Case of Brazil, Brasilia was an economic statement of Brazil’s intent to economically develop its hinterlands. Forward Capital
A Geopolital hypothesis by Halford MacKinder around 1900-1920 that the power that controls the heart of the Eurasian landmass will control the world. He argued that this would give the ruler of this territory unlimited access to the East. Heartland Theory
A state that possesses more than one core or dominant region economic, political or cultural. Ex. The US Multi-core State
Frederick Ratzell’s theory that states where like biological creatures and the strongest would and should prevail. An example of Social Darwinism and used as rationalization by conquerors for their conquests and colonization of the Early Twentieth Century Organic Theory
A Country's largest city Primate City
Nicholas Spykman maintained in this theory that the key to global power was to control the coastal rim of Eurasia. A counter thesis to Mackinder’s Heartland Theory. Rimland Theory
A nation state that has a central government and administration that exercises equal power over all parts of the nation Unitary State
Forerunner of the European Common Market, an agreement economically among Belgium The Netherlands and Luxemburg Benelux
An oceanic zone extending up to 200 nautical miles within which the coastal state can control fishing and other economic activity. Exclusive Economic Zones
Ventures involving three or more independent states involving political, economic or cultural cooperation Supranationalism
A theory of Government in which sovereignty lies in the hands of the people who exercise their power through a fair voting process. Democracy
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government. Devolution
A state that by virtue of its border location between geopolitical power cores that absorbs and assimilates cultures and traditions of its neighbors Gateway State
A study of the interplay between international political relations and the territorial/environmental context in which they occur. Geopolitics
A description of the international system resulting from the collapse of the soviet Union in which the balance of nuclear terror theoretically no longer determined the destinies of states. New World Order
Created by: jmmassa
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