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A&P Chapter 10

Nervous System

TermDefinition
What are the three basic parts of the nervous system? brain, spinal cord, and nerves
What is the most complex of any of the body's systems? Nervous system
What is the role of the endocrine system? employs chemical messengers called hormones to communicate with cells.
How does the nervous system work? Uses electrical signals to transmit messages at lightning speed.
What are the three essential roles of the Nervous System? Sensation, integration, and response
what are the 2 divisions of the nervous system? Central Nervous System(CNS) and Peripheral nervous system(PNS)
What does the CNS consist of? Brain and spinal cord
What does the PNS consist of? the nerve network throughout the body.
What are the two parts of the peripheral nervous system sensory peripheral and motor peripheral
PNS: What does the sensory (afferent) division do carries signals from nerve ending to CNS
What does the Motor (efferent) division do? transmits information from CNS to rest of the body
what does the Somatic sensory (external) do? carries signals from skin, bones, joints, and muscles.
what does Visceral sensory (internal) do? carries signals from viscera of heart, lungs, stomach, and bladder.
what does somatic motor (voluntary) do? allows voluntary movements of skeletal muscles.
What does autonomic motor (involuntary) do? provides automatic activities such as control of blood pressure and heart rate
What does the sympathetic division of the autonomic motor do? arouses body for action fight or flight.
what does the parasympathetic division of the autonomic motor do? calming effect "the rest and digest"
what are the two types of cell that make up the nervous system? neurons and neuroglia.
What are neurons? excitable, impulse-conducting cell that perform the work of the nervous system.
What are neuroglia? supportive cells of the nervous system.
What do neuroglia do? protect and enhance the function of neurons.
What protects the tail of a neuron? Myelin
What is Cerebrospinal Fluid made of? mainly glucose.
How many Glial cells make up each neuron? 50
Where are Schwann cells found? PNS
Where are Oligodendrocytes, ependymal, microglia, and astrocytes found? CNS
What is the function of Oligodendrocytes? forms the myelin Sheath in the brain and spinal cord; speed signal conduction
What is the function of Ependymal Cells and where are they located? lines the spinal cord and cavities of the brain. Some secrete cerebrospinal fluid others have cilia that aid fluid circulation
what are the functions of microglia performing phagocytosis by breaking down infection, engulfing microorganisms, and cellular debris.
What is the function of Astrocytes? nourishing neurons, help form the blood brain barrier, attach neurons to blood vessels, and provide structural support.
What are the role and function of Schwann cells? form the myelin sheath around nerves in PNS, and form neurilemma.
What is the Blood Brain Barrier? A semi permeable membrane that allows small molecules to come through and reach the brain.
What forms the Blood Brain Barrier? Neuroglia wrapped around capillaries.
what does the BBB Protect against? foreign substances
What are the two main chemical that cross the BBB? Alcohol and Nicotine
What do Neurons do? Handle communication between the brain and the rest of the body and vice versa.
What are the 3 classes of Neurons? Sensory (afferent) neurons, interneurons, Motor (efferent) neurons
What do sensory (afferent) neurons do? Detect stimuli: taste, pressure, hot, cold
What do Interneurons do? connects the incoming sensory pathways with outgoing motor pathways.
What do Motor (efferent) Neurons do? relay messages causing response.
What is proprioception? Being aware of where the body is in the universe. IE: walking up a hill, you begin to hunch; motion sickness.
What are the structures of a neuron? cell body, dendrites, axon, myelin sheath, nodes of ranvier, and synaptic knobs.
What is the Cell body? the control center of the neuron
Where is the nucleus of a neuron housed? Cell body
What is the role of dendrites? receive signals from other neurons and conduct the info into the cell body.
What is the role of an axon? carries nerve signals away from the cell body.
How many axons do nerve cells have? one
What is the Myelin Sheath? Encases the axon of a neuron.
what is the myelin sheath made up of? mostly lipid.
What are the nodes of ranvier? Gaps in the myelin sheath that occur in evenly spaced intervals.
What are the synaptic knobs? the terminal end of each axon.
What is an alternate name for the cell body? soma
What is neurilemma? the outlayer of the myelin sheath
what does neurilemma do? Helps to regenerate nerves?
What is the longest axon in the body? sciatic nerve.
what is the space called between two synapses or neurons? Synaptic Gap
What is the difference between CNS and PNS? CNS has no generation PNS does have the ability to regenerate
What does saltatory conduction mean? jumping conduction
what is saltatory conduction? movement of action potential on the nodes of ranvier (way it travels down the axon)
Where are chemicals stored? synaptic knob
Are all nerve fibers myelinated? no
What helps speed impulse conduction? Myelin
Unmyelinated fibers conduct nerve impulses more ____________. slowly.
What function do unmyelinated nerve fibers perform? function where speed isnt essential.
When is myelin fully developed? adulthood
when do nerve cells begin to myelinate 14 weeks gestation
What is the neurileems most essential for? regenerating injured nerves
What are impulse conductions caused by? electrical current or flow of charges particles.
what is membrane potential? when ions with opposite electrical charges are separated by a membrane.
What is polarization? when a membrane has an excess of positive ions on one side and an excess of negative ions on the others.
What is na+? Sodium
What is K+ Potassium
What is resting potential? inside of cell is negatively charged and has a high k+ content and the outside of the cell is positively charged and has high na+ content.
What is depolarization? A stimulus activates the membrane and the pores of the membrane open and sodium rushes in
What is the stage when a neuron is resting but it has the potential to react if a stimulus comes along resting potential.
When the interior changes from negative to positive, this is called_______________ depolarization.
Switching positive and negative depolarize.
Action potential if the stimulus is strong enough, the neuron becomes active and the impulse continues down the axon
what is the "hopping pattern" called? Saltatory conduction
What is repolarization? the abundance of NA in the cell forces K to leave the cell
Refractory period NA and K are on the wrong sides of the cell and the neuron can not respond to new stimulus.
When does the Na-K pump activate to restore resting potential (homeostasis) refractory period
Is saltatory conduction faster in adults or children adults
What is another name for action potential? Nerve impulse
Where is the neurotransmitter and ACH stored synapses
What part of the nervous system is the spinal cord CNS
how many pairs of spinal nerves are there? 31
what is a plexus? bundle of spinal nerves
Cauda Equina a bundle of nerve roots that extend from the end of a spinal cord
Where are spinal injections done Cauda Equina between L3 and L4
What do spinal nerves in the cervical region control? chest, head, neck, shoulders, arms, hands, and diaphragm
What do spinal nerves in the thoracic region control? intercostal muscles of the ribcage, the abdominal muscles and the back muscles
What do spinal nerves in the lumbar region control? lower abdominal wall and parts of the thighs and legs.
What do spinal nerves in the sacral region control? thighs, buttocks, skin of the legs and feet, and anal and genital regions.
what is a dermatome? each spinal nerve innervates a specific area of the skin.
What do shingles follow? a nerve tract
What does the Frenic spinal nerve control? works and controls the diaphragm
what are the 3 structures of the spinal cord tracts, central canal, and epidural space
where does cerebrospinal fluid go? circulates through the brain and spinal cord
Dura outer layer of the spine and brain
where do spinal motor nerves send to? only to muscle
where do spinal sensory nerves send to? from tissue to brain
what are muscle fibers called? fascicle
what are nerve bundles called? fascicle
Plexus? bundle of nerves
what do spinal nerves do? relay information from the spinal cord to the rest of the body.
what is the larges nerve in the body? Sciatic Nerve-
How many spinal nerves are located in the cervical part? 8
How many spinal nerves are located in the thoracic part? 12
How many spinal nerves are located in the lumbar part? 5
How many spinal nerves are located in the sacral part? 5
How many spinal nerves are located in the coccygeal part? 1
What is a dermatome? each spinal nerves (except C1) innervates a specific area of the skin.
What does the phrenic nerve do? innervates the diaphragm for breathing.
what is the area called that employs a neural circuit reflex arc
What are the four major regions of the brain? cerebrum, diencephalon, cerebellum, brainstem
What is the largest portion of the brain? cerebrum
What is a gyri (gyrus) thick ridges on the the surface of the brain
What is a Sulci (sulcus) shallow grooves that divide the gyri.
What are fissures deep sulci
What do fissures divide? the hemispheres.
What region of the brain control temperature? diencephalon
What are the three structures of the brainstem midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
a deep groove that divides the cerebrum into right and left cerebral hemipheres longitudinal fissure
a thick bundle of nerves that runs along the bottom of the fussure that serves to connect the two hemispheres corpus callosum
where is the diencephalon located? in the center of the brain between the cerebrum and midbrain
What control blood pressure, respiratory, and heartrate? brainstem
What is another name for midbrain medulla
what is contraladeral the right hemisphere of the brain controls the left side of the body and the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body
What is meningitis? infection of the meninges
What does dura mean hard
what does Pia mean foot or bottom
What is the outer layer of the brain dura mater
what is the middle layer of the brain arachnoid mater
What is the inside layer of the brain located against the cerebral cortex pia mater
what is the space called that separates the dura from the arachnoid mater subdural space
What are the four chambers of the brain called ventricles
Where is CSF formed from blood? choroid plexus
what is the choroid plexus? a network of blood vessels lining the floor and wall of each ventricle
what is contained in CSF glucose and protein
where is the visual cortex located? midbrain
what part of the brain stem has cluster of neurons integral to muscle control? midbrain
what does the mid brain contain tracts that relay sensory and motor impulses centers for auditory and visual reflexes clusters of neurons integral to muscle control
Pons contains tracts that convey signals to and from different parts of the brain
what attaches the brain and the spinal cord medulla oblongata
what is the medulla oblongata responsible for? regulating heart rate, affects blood pressure, and regulate breathing.
what is cerebellar disfunction poor gait, poor impulse control, tremors.
what is the role of the cerebellum voluntary muscle control, processing messages, movements, balance, coordination
where are most neurons in the brain located cerebellum
vagus response straining while begin active and having a reaction ie...passing out
What resides on top of the brainstem thalamus
what is the gateway for nearly every sensory impulse that also filters impulse and transmits some to cerebral cortex thalamus
what influences almost all of the organ systems hypothalamus
hypothalamus control the ___________ nervous system autonomic
regulates the pituitary gland hypothalamus
what makes up the cerebrum white and gray tissue
Where is the home of the thalamus and hypothalamus diencephalon
what is the largest portion of the brain cerebrum
frontal lobe emotion and memory
parietal lobe interprets bodily sensations, touch, temp, proprioception
temporal lobe governs hearing, smell, learning, behavior, visual recognition
occipital lobe concerned with analyzing and interpreting visual info
what plays a role in perception, motor control, self awareness, and cognitive function insula
where does thinking occur inside the cerebellum
what is the bridge between the brain hemipheres that allows the two to communicate back and forth corpus callosum
what is white matter myelinated tissue that makes up the bulk of the brain
what is gray matter unmyelined; makes up the surface of the cerebrum
encircles the corpus collosum and the thalamus limbic system.
hippocampus converts short-term memory into long term memory
amygdala stores and can recall emotion from past events.
what is the primary somatic sensory area of the brain? postcentral gyrus
what area allows us to pinpoint the location of pain and identify texture somatic sensory association area
Motor association located in the frontal lobe determine which movements are required for a specific task
where is the visual cortex located and what does it do? occipital lobs it is stimulated by written language
a person has difficulty understanding spoken words receptive aphasia
words that are trying to be said will not be spoken. expressive aphasia
primary motor cortex sends impulses to the muscles necessary to pronounce the word
auditory association area gives us the ability to recognize familiar sounds
primary auditory complex responsible for hearing
primary gustatory complex handles the interpretation and sensation of taste
recognizes familiar objects and interprets the information acquired through the primary visual cortex visual association area
responsible for sight primary visual cortex
association recognizes familiarity
olfactory location frontal lobe, sense of smell
auditory location temporal lobe
left side of the brain language, analytic thought
right side of the brain big picture, emotion, imagination, art and music
CNI olfactory
CNII optic
CNIII oculomotor
CNIV trochlear
CNV trigeninal
aphagia difficulty swallowing
aphasia without speech; difficulty swallowing
CNVI abducens
CNVII facial
CNVIII auditory
CNIX glossopharyngeal
CNX vagus
CNXI spinal accessory
CNXII hypoglossal
regulates activities that maintain homeostasis autonomic nervous system
sends impulses to cardiac and smooth digestive muscles autonomic nervous system
sends impulses to cardiac and smooth digestive muscles autonomic nervous system
autonomic nervous system visceral motor system
autonomic nervous system visceral motor system
location of adrenal glands sits on top of kidney
location of adrenal glands sits on top of kidney
what are 2 catacolamines epinephrine and norepinepherine
what are 2 catacolamines epinephrine and norepinepherine
On Old Olympus Towering Top A Friendly Viking Grew Vines And Hops olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal
On Old Olympus Towering Top A Friendly Viking Grew Vines And Hops olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal
secretes acetylcholine (ACH) cholinergic fibers
secretes acetylcholine (ACH) cholinergic fibers
secrete norepinephrine adrenergic fibers
secrete norepinephrine adrenergic fibers
nicotinic receptors are excited by ACH/receives ACH
nicotinic receptors are excited by ACH/receives ACH
muscarinic receptors dumping of adrenaline and produce a variable response
muscarinic receptors dumping of adrenaline and produce a variable response
tissue response to a neurochemical depends on? receptor site and type of reaction
tissue response to a neurochemical depends on? receptor site and type of reaction
responds to norepinephrine adrenergic receptors
alpha-adrenergic receptors vessels constrict/ excited by norepinephrine
beta-adrenergic inhibited by Norepinephrine/ vessels dilate
neurotransmitter of adrenergic receptors epinepherine and norepinephrine
neurotransmitter of adrenergic receptors epinepherine and norepinephrine
Created by: jordan baldwin