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APHG Unit 1 Vocab

TermDefinition
Fieldwork The study of geographic phenomena by visiting places and observing how people interact with and thereby change those places.
Human geography branch of geography that studies patterns and procceses that shape human interaction the environment and human activity on Earth
Globalization international integration arising from the interaction of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture
Physical geography study of Earth's physical features on the surface
Spatial of or relating to space
Spatial distribution arrangement of something (ie. Bus stop locations, etc.) across the Earth's surface)
Medical geography study of how local events and climate affect health
Pandemics global disase outbreak, over large regions
Epidemics widespread occurrence of a disease at a particular time in a community
Spatial perspectives a concentration of where something/someone is
5 themes of geography location, movement, region, place, and human environmental interaction
Location particular place of position
Location theory addresses what economic activities are located where and why
Human Environmental Interaction interactions between the human social system and the ecosystem.
Place an area that is defined by everything in it
Region area that is defined by similar characteristics
Sense of place combinatin of characteristics that a place special and unique
Perception of places perception of places is when humans feel and experience a place
Movement the way people, products, information, and ideas move from one place to another
Spatial interactions the way geographers look at things in relation to space
Landscape geographic feautures of a region
Cultural landscape human interaction with an environment shapes cultural landscape
Sequent occupance theory that place is occupied by different people and each group leaves something from which the next group learns
Cartography map-making
Reference maps emphasizes the geographic location of feautres
Thematic maps maps on a specific subject
Absolute location a location of latitude and longistude in a Cartesian coordinate grid
GPS a system that uses a series of satellites to pinpoint your location (gathers information)
Relative location the location of something in relation to landmarks of other locations
Mental maps maps created purely from the mind and personal perspective of a location
Activity spaces the places we travel routinely in our rounds of daily activity
Generalized maps the process of selecting and representing information on a map in a way that adapts to the scale of the display medium of the map.
Remote sensing a method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
Geographic Information System (GIS) a collectin of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user
Scale territorial extent of something
Functional region defined by a set of social, political, or economic activities or the interactions that occur within it.
Formal region defined by a commonality, typically a cultural linkage or a physical characteristic.
Perceptual region ideas in our minds, based on accumulated knowledge of places and regions, that define an area of “sameness” or “connectedness.”
Culture The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition
Cultural trait a single element of normal pracitce in a culture, such as the wearing of turbans
Cultural complex a related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
Cultural hearth heartland, source area, innovation center, place of origin of a major culture.
Cultural diffusion the expansion and adaption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area
Independent invention the term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other.
Time-distance decay the declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its place or origing to a wider area.
Cultural barriers pervailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in the particular culture.
Expansion diffusion The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination
Contagious diffusion the distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contract from person to person-analogoes to the communication of a contagious illness
Hierarchical diffusion a form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected plaes or peoples.
Stimulus diffusion a form of diffusion in which a cultural adaption is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place.
Relocation diffusion sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones.
Environmental determinism the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development, also referred to as envrionmentalism.
Isotherms line on map connecting points of equal temperature values
Possibilism geographic viewpoint- a response to determinism- that holds that human decesion making, not the environment, is the crucial factor in cultural development.
Cultural ecology the multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment.
Political ecology an approach to studying nature-society relations that is concerned with the ways in which environmental issues both reflect, and are the result of, the political and socioeconomic contexts in which they are situated.
Created by: albertpham