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Medical Terminology


a-, an- no, not
ab- away from
abdomin/o abdomen
-ac, -al, -an, -ar, -ary, -eal, -ic, -ine, -ior, -oid, -ous, -tic pertaining to
ad- toward
aden/o gland
adenoid/o adnoids
-algia pain
alveol/o alveolus (air sac within the lung)
amni/o amnion (sac that surrounds the embryo)
ana- up, apart
an/o anus
angi/o vessel (blood)
ante- before, forward
anter/o front
anti- against
aort/o aorta
append/o, appendic/o appendix
arteri/o artery
arteriol/o small artery
arthr/o joint
ather/o fatty plaque
-ation process, condition
aur/o ear
aut- self
axill/o armpit
balan/o penis
bi- two
bi/o life
blephar/o eyelid
brady- slow
bronch/o bronchial tube
bronchiol/o small bronchial tube
calcane/o calcaneus (heel bone)
capillar/o capillary
carcin/o cancer, cancerous
cardi/o heart
carp/o wrist bones (carpals)
-cele hernia
-centesis surgical pucture to remove fluid
cephal/o head
cerebell/o cerebellum (posterior part of the brain)
cerebr/o cerebrum (largest part of the brain)
cervic/o neck
chem/o drug, chemical
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o commonbile duct
chondr/o cartilage
chron/o time
-cision process of cutting
cis/o to cut
clavicul/o clavicle (collar bone)
-coccus bacterium (berry-shaped);pl. -cocci
coccyg/o tailbone
col/o colon (large intestine)
colon/o intestine
colp/o vagina
comi/o to care for
con- with, together
coni/o dust
-coniosis abnormal condition of dust
coron/o heart
cost/o rib
crani/o skull
crin/o secrete
-crine secretion
-crit separation
cry/o cold
cutane/o skin
cyan/o blue
cyst/o urinary bladder
cyt/o cell
-cyte cell
dactyl/o fingers or toes
dermat/o, derm/o skin
dia- thorough, complete
-dipsia thirst
duoden/o duodernum
dur/o dura mater (outermost meningeal layer)
-dynia pain
dys- abnormal, bad, difficult, painful
ec- out, outside
-ectasia, -ectasis dilation, stretching, widening
ecto- out, outside
-ectomy excision (resection, removal); process of cutting out
electr/o electricity
-emesis vomiting
-emia blood condition
en- within, in, inner
encephal/o brain
endo- within, in, inner
endocrin/o endocrine glands
endometr/o, endometri/o endometrium (inner lining of the uterus)
enter/o intestines (usually small intestine)
epi- above, upon
apiglott/o epiglottis
epitheli/o skin (surface tissue)
erythr/o red
esophag/o esophagus
esthesi/o sensation
ex-, exo-, extra- out, outside
femor/o femur, thigh bone
fibr/o fibrous tissue
fibul/o fibula (small lower leg bone)
gastr/o stomach
gen/o to produce
-gen to produce
-genesis producing, forming
-genic pertaining to producing, produced by
ger/o old age
glyc/o sugar
gnos/o knowledge
-gram record
-graph instrument to record
-graphy process of recording, to record
gynec/o woman, female
hemat/o, hem/o blood
hepat/o liver
humer/o humerus (upper arm bone)
hydr/o water
hyper- above, excessive, more than normal, too much
hypo- below, deficient, less than normal, too little
hypophys/o pituitary gland
hyster/o uterus
-ia condition
-ian practitioner
iatr/o treatment
ile/o ileum (third part of small intestine)
ili/o ilium (upper part of hip bone)
in- in, into
infra- below
inguin/o groin
intra- within
isch/o to hold back
-ism condition, process
-ist specialist
-itis inflammation
jejun/o jejunum
lapar/o abdomen
-lapse slide
laryng/o larynx (voice box)
later/o side
ligament/o ligament
leiomy/o smooth muscle
leuk/o white
lip/o fat
-listhesis to slip, slide
lith/o stone
-lith stone
-logy study of, process of study
lumb/o loin, waist region
lymph/o lymph
lymphaden/o lymph nodes
lymphangi/o lymph vessel
lys/o separation, breakdown, destruction
-lysis separation, breakdown, destruction
mal- bad
-malacia softening
mamm/o breast
mast/o breast
mediastin/o mediastinum
medull/o medulla oblongata (lower part of the brain)
-megaly enlargement
men/o menstruation
mening/o meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)
meta- to measure
metacarp/o metacapals (hand bones)
metatars/o metatarsals (foot bones)
-meter to measure
metr/o, metri/o uterus; to measure
-metry mesurement
-mortem death
-motor movement
muscul/o muscle
my/o muscle
myel/o bone marrow (with -blast, -oma, cyte, -genous)
myos/o muscle
myring/o eardrum
nas/o nose
nat/i birth
necr/o new
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
norm/o rule, order
nos/o disease
obstetr/o midwife
ocul/o eye
-oma tumor, mass swelling
onc/o tumor
o/o egg
oophor/o ovary
ophthalm/o eye
-opsy process of viewing
opt/o, optic/o eye
or/o mouth
orch/o testicle, testis
orchi/o testicle, testis
orchid/o testicle, testis
orth/o straight
-osis abnormal condition
osm/o smell
oste/o bone
ot/o ear
ovari/o ovary
pancreat/o pancreas
para- beside, near, along the side of
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland
-partum birth
path/o disease
-pathy disease condition
ped/o child
pelv/o hip bone
-penia dificiency
per- through
peri- surrounding
peritone/o pertoneum (membrane around abdominal organs)
perone/o fibula
-pexy fixation (surgical)
phak/o lens of the eye
phalang/o phalanges (finger and toe bones)
pharyng/o pharynx, throuat
-phasia speech
-philia attraction to
phleb/o vein
phren/o diaphragm
phren/o mind
pituitar/o formation, growth, development
-plasm formation, growth, development
-plasia formation, growth
-plasty surgical repair
-plegia paralysis
pleur/o pleura (membrane surrounding the lungs)
-pnea breathing
pneum/o air, lung
pneumon/o lung
-poiesis formation
poly- many, much
post- after, behind
poster/o back, behind
pre- before
pro- before, forward
prict/o anus and rectum
prostat/o prostate gland
psych/o mind
-ptosis prolapse, sagging
-ptysis spitting
pulmon/o lung
pyel/o renal pelves (central section of the kidney)
radi/o x-ray; radius (lateral lower arm bone)
re-, retro- behind, back
rect/o rectum
ren/o kidney
retin/o retina of the eye
rhabdomy/o striated (skeletal) muscle
rheumat/o flow, fluid
rhin/o nose
-rrhage bursting forth of blood
-rrhaphy suture
-rrhea flow, discharge
sacr/o sacrum
salping/o fallopian (uterus) tube; eustachian tube
-salpinx fallopian (uterus) tube; eustachian tube
sarc/o flash
scapul/o shoulder blade (bone)
-sclerosis hardening
-scope instrument to view or visually examine
-scopy process of viewing or visual examination
scrot/o scrotal sac, scrotum
-section to cut
sept/o infection
septic/o infection
-sis condition
-somatic pertaining to the body
son/o sound
-spasm constriction
spin/o backbone, spine, vertebra
splen/o spleen
spondyl/o vertebra, backbone
-stasis stop, control; place, to stand
-stat stop, control
-stenosis narrowing
stern/o sternum (breast bone)
stomat/o mouth
-stomy opening
sub- under, below
sym- with, together (use before b, p, and m)
syn- with, together
tachy- fast
tedin/o, ten/o tendon
-tension pressure
theli/o, thel/o nipple
-therapy treatment
-thesis to put, to place
thorac/o chest
thromb/o clot
thym/o thymus gland
thyr/o, thyroid/o, thyroaden/o thyroid gland
tibi/o tibia or shin bone (larger lower leg bone)
-tomy incision, process of cutting into
tonsill/o tonsils
top/o to put, place
trache/o trachea, windpipe
trans- across, through
tri- three
troph/o development, nourishment
-trophy development, nourishment
tympan/o eardrum
uln/o ulna (medial lower arm bone)
ultra- beyond
-um structure
uni- one
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
ur/o urine, urinary tract
-uria urine condition
uter/o uterus
vagin/o vagina
vas/o vessel, vas deferens
vascul/o blood vessel
ven/o vein
venul/o venule
vertebr/o vertebra, backbone
vesic/o urinary bladder
adren/o adrenal gland