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Introduction to AP Human Geography

sequent occupance refers to the idea that as occupiers arrived they bring their own technology & culture traditions and transform the landscape but they can also be influenced by what they find when they arrive and leave some of it there (concept-Derwent Whittlesey, 1929)
cartography study of maps/map making
reference maps show location of places and geographic features
thematic maps tell stories, usually showing the degree of some attribute or movement of a geographic phenomenon
absolute location latitude/longitude, coordinates, an exact location
relative location describes where a place is in relation to another place
global positioning system (GPS) allows us to locate things on the surface of the earth with extraordinary accuracy; researchers can collect data quickly and easily in the field
geocaching a hunt for cache whose coordinates are placed on the internet by other geocachers
mental maps the maps we carry in our minds of places we have been and places we have merely heard of (ex. a mental map of your house, park, school, church, public, etc)
activity spaces those places we travel to routinely in our rounds of daily activity (ex. Miss O's classroom, the gym, the cafeteria, your kitchen, the bus/bus stop, clock tower...)
generalize/generalized maps not entirely specific, the word precipitation uses the main annual precipitation received around the world. a map that does not use specific information
remote sensing geographers monitor the earth's surface from a distance to understand the scope and rate of environmental change over short and long periods of time by satellites and aircraft (airplanes, balloons)
geographic information systems (GIS) geographers use this advancement in computer technology and data storage to compare a variety of spatial data by combining layers of spatial data in a computerized environment, creating maps in which patterns and processes are superimposed
formal region a physical criteria of an area and can also be defined by cultural traits (the people share one or more cultural traits--food, belief systems, dress, dances, hair styles, languages, etc.)
functional region the product of interactions of movement of various kinds
perceptual regions intellectual constructs designed to help us understand the nature and distribution of phenomena in human geography
culture refers to music, literature, and the arts of a society, and all other features of its ways of life, dress, routine living habits, food, architecture, education, government, law, even agricultural practices
cultural trait a single attribute or characteristic of a culture
culture complex more than one culture may exhibit a cultural trait, but each will consist of a discrete combination of traits
cultural hearth an area where cultural traits develop and from which the cultural traits diffuse
independent invention the term for a trait with many hearths that developed independent of each other
culture diffusion process where something spreads--an idea or innovation from its hearth to other places
time-distance decay both time and distance can cause something not to be adopted the longer it takes to reach its potentials adopters. the farther a place is from the hearth or longer the idea takes to get there, the less likely it will be adopted
cultural barriers some cultural traits are not adoptable in particular cultures because of prevailing attitudes or taboos
expansion diffusion an idea that develops in a hearth and remains strong there while spreading outward, moves without people physically moving to be "knowers" of the trait/innovation
relocation diffusion the opposite of expansion diffusion where the actual movement movement of individuals who have already adopted the idea or innovation carry it to a new, sometimes distant local, where they proceed to disseminate it, usually occurs through migration
contagious diffusion a type of expansion diffusion in which nearly all adjacent individuals are affected
hierarchical diffusion a pattern where the main channel of diffusion is some segment, level, or step of those who might adopt what is diffusing
stimulous determinism belief that behavior (individual & collective) is affected, controlled, or determined by physical envrionment people live in
possiblism belief of the natural environment only limits choices available to a culture
cultural ecology an area of inquiry concerned with culture as a system of adaptation to environment
political ecology an area of inquiryfundamentally concerned with the environmental consequences of dominant political-economic arrangements and understandings
Created by: troublecleff88