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Human Geography

Unit 2

Population density measure of total population relative to land size
Arithmetic population density The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit
Physiological population density The number of people per unit area of agriculturally productive (arable) land.
Population distribution Description of locations on the Earth's surface where populations live.
Dot map Map where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as a population
Megalopolis Term used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world
Census A periodic and official count of a country's population.
Doubling time Time required for a population to double in size
Population explosion The rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase.
Natural Increase (NIR) Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths (Subtract CDR from CBR). Natural increase of a population doesn't reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) The number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population
Crude Death Rate (CDR) The number of deaths yearly per thousand people in a population
Demographic Transition Model Multistage model of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization
Low-growth stage Stage 1. High birth and death rate lead to a population that varies over time, with little long-term population growth
High-growth stage Stage 2. High birth rate and declining death rate lead to sustained and significant population increase.
Moderate-growth stage Stage 3. Declining birth rate combined with already-low death rate lead to continuing population growth
Low-growth or stationary stage Stage 4. Low birth rate and low death rate lead to a very low rate of growth.
Stationary population level (SPL) The level at which a national population ceases to grow.
Population composition Structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education
Population pyramid Visual representations of the age and sex composition of a population whereby the percentage of each age group is represented by a horizontal bar the length of which represents its relationship to the total population. Males on left, Women on right
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population.
Child mortality rate A figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population.
Life expectancy Figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live. Normally expressed in the context of a particular state
Chronic (degenerative) diseases Generally long-lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies
Expansive population policies Government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth
Restrictive population policies Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase
Remittances monies migrants send home to family
Cyclic movement Movement--for example, nomadic migration--that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally
Periodic movement Movement--for example, college attendance or military service--that involves temporary, recurrent relocation
Migration A change in residence intended to be permanent
Activity spaces The space within which daily activity occurs
Nomadism Movement among a definite set of places--often cyclic movement
Migrant labor A common type of periodic movement involving millions of workers in the U.S. and tens of millions of workers worldwide who cross international borders in search of employment and become immigrants, in many instances.
Transhumance A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures
Military service Another common form of periodic movement involving as many as 10 million US citizens in a given year, including military personnel and their families, who are moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty lasting up to several years
International migration Human movement involving movement across international boundaries
Internal migration Human movement within a nation-state, such as ongoing westward and southward movements in the US
Forced migration Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate
Voluntary migration Movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity, not because they are forced to move
Laws of migration (1, 2, 3) Ravenstein. 1) Every migration flow generates a return or counter-migration. 2) the majority of migrants move a short distance. 3) Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations.
Laws of migration (4, 5) 4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas. 5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults
Gravity model A mathematical predication of the interaction of places, the interaction being a function of population size of the respective places and the distance between them
Push factor Negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their abode and migrate to a new locale
Pull factor Positive conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their abode and migrate to a new locale
Distance decay The effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less the interaction
Step migration Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to town and city
Intervening opportunity The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
Kinship links Types of push factors or pull factors that influence a migrant's decision to go where family or friends have already found success
Chain migration Pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links (i.e. one migrant settles in a place then writes/calls/communicates through others to describes this place to family/friends who in turn then migrate there)
Immigration wave Phenomenon whereby different patterns of chain migration build upon one another to create a swell in migration from one origin to the same destination
Global scale Interactions occurring at the scale of the world, in a global setting
Regional scale Interactions occurring within a region, in a regional setting
Island of development Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure
Refugees People who have fled their country because of political persecution and seek asylum in another country
Internal refugee People who have been displaced within their own countries and do not cross international borders as they flee
International refugee Refugees who have crossed one or more international boundaries during their dislocation, searching for asylum in a different country
Asylum Shelter and protection in one state for refugees from another state
Immigration laws Laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state
Quotas Established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year
Selective immgration Process to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds (e.g. criminal records, poor health, subversive activities) are barred from immigrating
Created by: snosseir
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