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Chapter 17

Sense Organs (Eyes)

accommodation Normal adjustment of the eye to focus on objects from far to near. The ciliary body adjusts the lens (rounding it) and the pupil constricts. When the eye focuses from near to far, the ciliary body flattens the lens and the pupil dilates.
anterior chamber Area behind the cornea and in front of the lens and iris. It contains aqueous humor.
aqueous humor Fluid produced by the ciliary body and found in the anterior chamber. A humor (Latin humidus means moist) is any body fluid, including blood and lymph
biconvex Consisting of two surfaces that are rounded, elevated, and curved evenly, like part of a sphere. The lens of the eye is a biconvex body
choroid Middle, vascular layer of the eye, between the retina and the sclera
ciliary body Structure surrounding the lens that connects the choroid and iris. It contains ciliary muscles, which control the shape of the lens, and it secretes aqueous humor.
cone Photoreceptor cell in the retina that transforms light energy into a nerve impulse. Cones are responsible for color and central vision
conjunctiva Delicate membrane lining the undersurface of the eyelids and covering the anterior eyeball
cornea Fibrous transparent layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball. Derived from Latin corneus, meaning horny, perhaps because as it protrudes outward, it was thought to resemble a horn.
fovea centralis Tiny pit or depression in the retina that is the region of clearest vision
fundus of the eye Posterior, inner part of the eye
iris Pigmented (colored) layer that opens and closes to allow more or less light into the eye. The central opening of the iris is the pupil
lens Transparent, biconvex body behind the pupil of the eye. It bends (refracts) light rays to bring them into focus on the retina.
macula Yellowish region on the retina lateral to and slightly below the optic disc; contains the fovea centralis, which is the area of clearest vision
optic chiasm Point at which optic nerve fibers cross in the brain (chiasm means crossing).
optic disc Region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina. It is the blind spot of the eye because it contains only nerve fibers, no rods or cones, and is thus insensitive to light.
optic nerve Cranial nerve carrying impulses from the retina to the brain (cerebral cortex).
pupil Central opening of the eye, surrounded by the iris, through which light rays pass. It appears dark.
refraction Bending of light rays by the cornea, lens, and fluids of the eye to bring the rays into focus on the retina. Refract means to break (-fract) back (re-).
retina Light-sensitive nerve cell layer of the eye containing photoreceptor cells (rods and cones).
rod Photoreceptor cell of the retina essential for vision in dim light and for peripheral vision
sclera Tough, white outer coat of the eyeball.
thalamus Relay center of the brain. Optic nerve fibers pass through the thalamus on their way to the cerebral cortex.
vitreous humor Soft, jelly-like material behind the lens in the vitreous chamber; helps maintain the shape of the eyeball
aque/o water
blephar/o eyelid
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva
cor/o pupil
corne/o cornea
cycl/o ciliary body or muscle of the eye
dacry/o tears, tear duct
ir/o, irid/o iris (colored portion of the eye around the pupil)
kerat/o cornea
lacrim/o tears
ocul/o eye
ophthalm/o eye
opt/o, optic/o eye, vision
palpebr/o eyelid
papill/o optic disc; nipple-like
phac/o, phak/o lens of the eye
pupill/o pupil
retin/o retina
scler/o sclera (white of the eye); hard
uve/o uvea; vascular layer of the eye (iris, ciliary body, and choroid)
vitre/o glassy
ambly/o dull, dim
dipl/o double
glauc/o grey
mi/o smaller, less
mydr/o widen, enlarge
nyct/o night
phot/o light
presby/o old age
scot/o darkness
xer/o dry
-opia vision
-opsia vision
-tropia to turn
astigmatism Defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye
hyperopia (hypermetropia) Farsightedness.
myopia Nearsightedness.
presbyopia Impairment of vision as a result of old age.
miotic a drug that contracts the pupil of the eye.
cataract clouding of the lens, causing decreased vision
chalazion Small, hard, cystic mass (granuloma) on the eyelid.
diabetic retinopathy Retinal effects of diabetes mellitus include microaneurysms, hemorrhages, dilation of retinal veins, and neovascularization (new blood vessels form in the retina).
glaucoma Increased intraocular pressure results in damage to the retina and optic nerve with loss of vision.
Blepharitis Inflammation of eyelid, causing redness, crusting, and swelling along lid margins
Ptosis Drooping of upper lid margin as a result of neuromuscular problems or trauma
macular degeneration Progressive damage to the macula of the retina.
nystagmus Repetitive rhythmic movements of one or both eyes.
retinal detachment Two layers of the retina separate from each other.
strabismus Abnormal deviation of the eye.
fluorescein angiography Intravenous injection of fluorescein (a dye) followed by serial photographs of the retina through dilated pupils.
ophthalmoscopy Visual examination of the interior of the eye.
slit lamp microscopy Examination of anterior ocular structures under microscopic magnification.
visual acuity test Clarity of vision is assessed
visual field test Measurement of the area (peripheral and central) within which objects are seen when the eyes are fixed, looking straight ahead without movement of the head
keratoplasty Surgical repair of the cornea.
LASIK Use of an excimer laser to correct errors of refraction (myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism).
scleral buckle Suture of a silicone band to the sclera over a detached portion of the retina.
vitrectomy Removal of the vitreous humor.
VF visual field