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Anthropology

Anthropolgy final

QuestionAnswer
Religion A social institution characterized by sacred stories: symbols and symbolism: the proposed existence of immeasurable beings, powers, states, places, and qualities: rituals and means of addressing the supernatural: specific practitioners: and change.
Creation Stories Stories from various cultures express different ideas about how people were given life and how people relate to their physical and social universe.
Function of Religion Religion embody world views that teach people ethical values. Sacred rituals dramatize people's beliefs and allow them to actively express those beliefs. Rleligions as a social instituations tend to reflect structure of societies in which they arise.
Egalitarian Societies Relationships between deities or sprits beings tend to be egalitarian as well.
Hierarchal societies People more likely to believe in the existence of a ranked pantheon of deities.
Religious beliefs and practices Some people believe the natural and supernatural worlds are connected. some people believe sprits inhabit a realm different from our own. Some people believe spirits are ever present and unseen
Beliefs Ideas about the sprit world the kinds of beings or forces that have sprit power, and the ways in which the universe is created and continues to exist.
Practices To obtain the help of spirit beings and harness spirit forces people perform rituals that convey their desire and intentions. Ritual behavior. symbolic behavior.
Prayer Religious speech or thought through which believers transmit messages to spirit beings.
Sacifice Offerings made to spirit beings in order to show gratitude and honor.
Rituals Activities, including religious speech, ceremonies, and behaviors that are demonstrations of belief.
Sacred Rituals Activities, places or objects that are connected to the spirit realm and are imbued with power.
Puberty/initiation rites Rituals performed to mark the passage of an individual from childhood to adulthood.
Funerary rites Rituals performed to mark a person's death and passage to the afterworld spirit beings and forces.
Animism Belief in the existence of souls.
Animatism Belief that all things are endowed with some spirit form or essence.
Mana A force, power or essence that endows people, animals, other livings, and possibly inanimate objects with special qualities or powers.
Ancestor Worship Belief in the importance of ancestors as they affect the living of survivors, protecting their descendants in return for rituals of honor performed to show them respect.
Totemism A belief system in which people believe they are descendants of spirit beings or ancestors. Totemic ancestors my have human or animal form. Totem poles illustrate totems as representations of spirit beings.
Fetishes Objects used in rituals.
Secret Societies Organizations that control the use of fetishes used in religious rituals.
Shamen A religious practitioner who makes contact with the spirit world through ritual, prayer and trance. Shamanism is ancient in the origins of religions. A shamen can perform healing rituals, and seek protection, advice, and support.
Priest A religious practitioner who leads a religious organization and officiates at rituals, but is not expected to be able to communicate directly with the spirit world.
Imitative Magic operates on the principle of "like causes like" or "life imitates art".
Contagious Magic operated on the principle that positive and negative qualities can be transferred through proximity or contact.
Religious beliefs and practices can function to: Support cohesive communities. Help us to explain and justify existing social order and social norms.
Social Control In some stratifactions.
What is Art? Artifact of human exceptional physical conceptual or imaginative skill. Intend to affect the senses.
The arts Form of creative expression that are guided by aesthetic principle and invade imagination, skill, and style.
Art and Society The arts are a means of using symbols to interpret the world. Art has meaning and serves important needs of both individuals and their societies.
Mimetic Attempts to portray the world around us accurately.
Representational Portrays the world in an ideal or symbolic way
Instrumental Attempts to change the world, or people's experiences of the world, or to enrich people's lives.
Formalist Abstract art that focuses on color, form, texture, medium, technique.
Body art: universality Body art is universal in humans and includes clothing, jewelry, hairstyle, body painting, body piercing, tattooing, and other alterations of the body.
Body Art-What it communicates Body art primarily communicates individual identify, group affiliation, and social standing.
Scarification Artistic and ritualistic scarring of the face or other parts of the body in particular patterns or designs, commonly used to mark transitions to adulthood.
Tattooing Injecting inks or dyes under the skin to produce designs.
Music, song, and dancing: universal and individual Music , song, and dancing serve critical individual and social functions including: personal expression, group solidarity, expression of spirituality and religious belief.
Secular Music Not used in rituals. Also called recreational.
Sacred Music Used in rituals for worship.
Secular dance Dancing not used in rituals. Also called recreational.
Sacred Dance A central or key aspect of many rituals. Style and movements may express sacred meanings or are believed to indicate this movement of spirit beings.
Ethnomusicology The study of the music and musical performances including dance, in past or present cultural context.
Oral literature Stories that people tell about their sacred past, their secular histories, and their personal lives.
Ethnic Arts Commodities in the global economy. The global economy influences are forms and alters the relationships between artists their world as well as between artworks and the life of the community.
Colonialism The practice of acquiring control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploring it economically. An extension of nation building using other people's land and resources.
Imperialism Empire building through state expansion in both commerce and territory.
Resettlement Policies Efforts of colonial authorities to relocate indigenous people to permanent settlements usually on less desirable land, to control and influence them.
Missionism Settlement for the purpose of religious conversion.
Slave Trade Built on african slavery.
European slave trade and globalization Effects are:Profound human costs, devastating impacts on African people and cultures including:Political consolidation of kingdoms, greater competition, conflict between groups, and changes in family and kinship.
European trade and settlement in north Began with the fur trade and led to the depopulation of native americans across the continent through displacement, warfare, and disease.
White man's Burden Paternalistic, racist, colonial attitude that treated, colonized people as inferiors in head of protection and instruction on how to live.
Sacred Trust British colonial attitude of sacred trust towards indigenous people justified efforts to civilize them.
Peaceful pacification Colonial goal of forcing indigenous people to be peaceful and nonresistant that settler slowly inhabit their land.
Cultural minorities Members of ethnic or cultural groups who have become minorities in their native lands due to migrations of other people, into territories, or due to the historical configuration of a nation-state made up of diverse groups.
Ethnic identity People may think of themselves as members of groups based on one set of criteria, but may find themselves catergorized as members of other groups on different criteria.
Nationalism Calls for miming differences between groups to achieve national rather than group unity or loyalty.
Transnationalism Process by which immigrants maintain, social, economic, religious, and political ties to both their immigrants communites and their communities back home.
Created by: baileythegr8