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Exam 2 Terms

Fundamentals of Neurobiology

pupil opening that allows light to reach the retina
iris circular muscle that controls the diameter of the pupil
aqueous humor fluid behind the cornea
sclera outermost layer that forms the eyeball
extraocular muscle attached to the eye and skull and allow movement
conjunctiva membrane inside eyelid attached to sclera
cornea transparent surface covering iris and pupil
optic nerve axons of the retina leaving the eye
optic disk blind spot where no vision is possible and where blood vessels originate and where optic nerve fibers exit, has no photoreceptors
macula area of the retina responsible for central vision where extending axons lie
fovea center of the retina where most cones are
lens transparent surface that contributes to the formation of images within 9 meters
ciliary muscles change the shape of the lens and allow focusing
vitreous humor more viscous than aqueous humor and lies between lens and retina and provides structural spherical shape
retina inner most layer of cells at the back of the eye that transduces into neural activity, thicker near fovea and thinner near lens
parasympathetic ring surrounds the pupil and when it constricts the pupil constricts
sympathetic ring surrounds the iris so when it constricts it pulls the parasympathetic ring out so the pupil dilates
zonule fibers attached to the lens. contraction of ciliary bodies contract fibers and the lens curves, when wiliary bodies extend then fibers stretch making the lens flat
photopic system light. every photoreceptor is illuminated and activated and light is not amplified. use cones mostly
photoreceptors light sensitive cells in retina that tranduce light energy into neural signals
bipolar cells connect photoreptors to ganglion cells
ganglion cells fire action potential and send axons to to brain
horizontal cells receive inputs from photoreceptors and project laterally to bipolar cells
amacrine cells receive inputs from bipolar cells and project laterally to ganglion cells
ganglion cell layer cell bodies of the ganglion cells
inner nuclear layer cell bodies of the bipolar cells
outer nuclear layer cell bodies of the photoreceptors
pigmented epithelium absorbs any light not absorbed by photoreceptors
scotopic system dark. no photoreceptor is illuminated so photons are harvested and amplified so one rod can activate many ganglion cells (via horizontal and amacrine cells). use rods only
bleaching photoreceptors no longer respond at particular light intensities. activation of rods by light bleaches the photopigment
middle ear air filled cavity within temporal increases the force that has been gathered by the tympanic membrane by the middle ear bones (incus, malleus, stapes--the ossicles) to the oval window
tympanic membrane (eardrum) moves in response to variations in air pressure
cochlea filled with incompressible fluid that requires more force to displace than air which is done by the middle ear bones
oval window smaller hole in the bone of the skull that amplifies pressure from tympanic membrane because the same pressure is pushed through smaller area that causes fluid displacement in the cochlea
eustachian tube connects the air filled middle ear to mouth and contains valve the nasal faranz
inner ear converts physical force of oval window into neural signal. contains the cochlea and vestibular apparatus
vestibular apparatus continuous membranes in loops extended from cochlea that contains the same fluid and is involved in balance and head position in 3D space when stereocilli on apparatus sheer when head moves
parts of the cochlea scala vestibula, scala tympani, scala media, hair cells, basilar membrane, organ of corti, tectorial membrane
organ of corti contains auditory receptor cells and is located in scala media
basilar membrane serparates scala media and scala tympani and has inner hair cells
helicotrema physical connection between scala vestibula and scala tympani where the fluid is continuous
hair cells of the basilar membrane lie between the basilar membrane and tectoral membrane
mechanoreceptors physical distortion
nociceptors pain--free nerve ending. free unmyelinated nerve ending signal body tissue damage
thermoreceptors temperature--free nerve ending. cold and hot receptors and overlaying intermediate receptors. drastic temperatures are perceived as pain. adaptable
proprioreceptors body position
chemoreceptors chemicals
types of mechanoreceptors pacinian, meissner's, ruffini's, mercel's disks
pacinian corpuscles deep pressure/touch and fine discrimination between texture and moving stimuli located in hypodermis and derma
meissner's corpuscles smooth, hairless skin sensitive to lower frequences of vibration, palms of hands and soles of feet, in papillary dermis
mercel's disks light pressures and tactile discrimination and increase surface area that can activate free nerve endings, and epidermis and durma
types of proprioreceptors muscle spindles fibers-detect stretch and contraction of muscle and are activated when stretched has monosynaptic reflex with spinal cord. golgi tendon organs- in tendons and detect muscle tension and have protective role when much tension is on tendon
DCML pathway touch and proprioception
ST pathway pain and temperature
alpha motor neurons (lower motor neurons) final common path for motor behavior, from spinal to muscle
spinal cord interneurons receive sensory inputs as well as descending projection from higher centers and provide much of the reflexive coordination
upper motor neurons cell bodies are in cortex or brain stem and descend to synapse with spinal cord interneurons or alpha motor neurons. there are separate pathways from brain stem and cortical. brain stem involved in posture and cortical involved in voluntary movement
cerebellum primary function is to compare movement commands from brain stem and cortical with sensory feedback about movement (no direct access to alpha motor neurons). coordinates complex movements and motor learning
motor pool group of motor units that control one muscle that run parallel to long axis of spinal cord
motor unit a neuron and the muscle it controls
fast fatigable FF motor units contract and relax rapidly, generate largest force, fatigue after a few minutes of repeated stimulation. ex: extraocular muscles
slow motor (S) units fatigue resistant, contract slowly,fraction of FF's force. muscles involved in posture
fast fatigue resistant (FR) motor units force stronger than slow but still very less than FF motor units but are more fatigue resistant than FF
brain stem vestibular nucleus control 3D position of head and axial muscles
brain stem reticular formation extends from rostral midbrain to caudal medulla and controls axial and proximal muscle limb muscles and respiration and regulation of arousal
brain stem superior colliculus orients movement of head and projects to cervical cord
brain stem red nucleus projects to lateral aspects of cervical cord and controls movement of arms
hypothalamus part of the diencephalon, lies inferior to the thalamus, contributes to the wall of the 3rd ventricle. has nuclei, optic chiasm, and tuber cinereum which is the floor of the 3rd ventricle and has median eminence, and infundibulum
infundibiulum stalk that connects hypothalamus to pituitary
pituitary gland has posterior lobe with infundiblum that make of the neurohypophysis and the anterior lobe or adenohyophysis comprised of glandular tissue
SON vs PVN axons of these neurons terminate in the posterior pituitary and neurohormones released upon electrical stimulation. secretions are released into interstitial tissue and picked up by capillary plexus in posterior pituitary. SON-oxytocin, PVN-ADH
connection between hypothalamus and anterior pituitary vascular. hypophyseal portal system. connects median eminence to secretory cells of the anterior pituitary
TRH localized in PVN and releases TSH that release T3/T4
SST localized in VM and inhibits GH
GHRH localized in arcuate and secretes GH
GnRH localized in arcuate and secretes FSH and LH that release estrogen
CRH localized in PVNreleases ACTH that releases cortisol
PIH widespread hypothalemic distribution and inhibit PRL
anterior pituitary hormones FSH, LH, TSH, ACTH, GH, PRL, MSH
posterior pituitary hormones OT, AVP, ADH
Created by: LittleD331
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