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Types of skeletal muscle contraction Twitch, Tetanic, isotonic, Isometric
orbicularis oris draws lips together know as the kissing muscle
gastrocnemius Plantar flexing ankle, also known as the toe dancer muscle
Fixator muscle generally functions as a joint stabilizer
zygomaticus elevates corners of mouth and lips, aka smiling muscle
Semitendinosus flexes knee, hamstring muscle
Lever any rigid bar free to turn about a fixed point called its fulcrum
Rectus fermoris extends the knee, a quadriceps femoris muscle
synergists muscle that contracts same time as the prime mover, assists the prime mover in producing movement
Triceps brachii flexes elbow, aka boxer's muscle
prime mover (agonist) responsible for producing a particular movement
origin point of attachment that does not move when muscle contracts
Tendons anchor muscles firmly to bones. They are cordlike structures composed of dense fibrous connective tissue.
endomysium Muscle cells (muscle fibers) are covered by connective tissue membrane
perimysium. Groups of the muscle fibers are then held together by a tough connective tissue envelope
antagonist produces a movement opposite to the prime mover and synergist
Muscle tone maintains posture, which encourages body parts to remain in the position that favors proper function
posture maintaining proper body alignment and keeping the body's center of gravity over its base so that there is minimal strain on muscles.
Muscles (posture) maintain posture by the property of tonicity.
Function of skeleton muscle Movement, posture, maintenance of body temperature
First-Class Levers: the fulcrum lies between the pull and the load. They serve as levers of stability.
Second-Class Levers: the load lies between the fulcrum and the joint at which the pull is exerted. The presence of this type of lever in the body is controversial.
Third-Class Levers: pull is exerted between the fulcrum and the resistance or load to be moved. This permits rapid and extensive movement. This is the most common type of lever found in the body.
Deltoid means triangular.
Latissimus means wide
Rectus means straight direction of muscle fibers
Transverse means across direction of muscle fibers
Oblique means diagonal direction of muscle fibers
Circularis means circular direction of muscle fibers
Pectoralis means chest. muscle location
Gluteus means buttock. muscle location
Brachii means arm muscle location
used in naming muscles size, shape, direction of fibers, location, number of attachments, origin, insertion, and action
arrangement of muscle fibers parallel, convergent, oblique, pennate (feather-like), spiral, circular, and curved.
Skeletal muscle has cross striations (striae) throughout and is sometimes referred to as striated muscle.
Cardiac muscle comprises the musculature of the heart. It too has striations but is considered involuntary
Smooth muscle has no striations and is, therefore, smooth in appearance. It, too, is involuntary and is sometimes referred to as visceral muscle because of its location in many visceral structures.
Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac The three types of muscle tissue
protein actin is one of the myofilaments, that make up the sacromere
Sacromere The contractile unit of a muscle cell
sliding filament modal (theory) model of how a skeletal muscle contracts
threshold stimulus minimal level of stimulation required to cause a fiber to contract
orbicularis oculi closes eye
Isotonic contraction movement at joint, muscle changes length, the insertion end moves relative to the point of origin
Isometric contraction does not always produces movement; increase tensionwithin muscle. (pulling against load)
Actin protein of thin myofilaments
Myosin protein of thick myofilaments
primary function of muscular system Movement, Posture, Heat production
Abduction movement away from midline
Adduction movement toward the midline
Pronation hand position turned towards anterior palm up
Suspination hand position towards posterior palm down
Plantar flexion ankle movement bottom of foot pointing downwards like standing on toes
Dorsiflexion ankle movement dorsum or top of foot is elevated, toes pointing up
Rotation movement around a longitudinal axis, pivot joint
Inversion ankle movement bottom of foot upwards and faces towards midline of body
Eversion ankle movement bottom of foot towards side of body
insertion muscle attachment to the more movable bone
origin muscle attachment to the more stationary bone
ATP molecule , supplies energy for muscle contraction
Lactic acid waste product produced by energy supplying process that does not require oxygene
Motor unit single motor neuron with all muscle cells it innervates
Strain excessive stretching or tearing of muscle fibers
fibromyositis inflammation of muscle and tendon
poliomyelitis viral infection of motor nerves. may progress life- threatening paralysis
muscular dystrophy group of muscle disorders characterized by muscle atrophy
mayastenia gravis autoimmune muscle disease characterized by weakness and chronic fatigue
sprain also known as torn ligament, is damage to one or more ligaments in a joint,
Created by: ptenz