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Function of skeleton system Support, protection, movement, storage, hematopoiesis
SSF Support bones form the body's supporting framework, giving shape
SSF Protection hard bony boxes protect delicate structures
SSF Movement muscles are anchored to bones. as muscles contract and shorten, the pull on bones and thereby move them.
SSF Storage bones play an important part in maintaining homeostasis of blood calcium
SSF Hematopoiesis blood cell formation is a vital process carried on in red bonemarrow, which is soft connective tissue in some bones
Types of bones long, short, flat and irregular
Structure of long bone Diaphysis, Medullary, Epiphyses, Articular Cartliage, Periosteum, Endosteum
Diaphysis Shaft, hollow tube of long bone made of hard compact bone
Medullary hollow area inside the diaphysis of long bone
Epiphyses ends of the long bone
Articular Cartliage thin layer of cartilage covering each epiphysis
Periosteum strong fibrous membrane covering a long bone everywhere except at joint surfaces
Endosteum thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity
basic structural unit of compact bone tissue 1) Osteons, 2) Haversian system
Osteocytes mature bone cells, lie between the hard layers of the lamellae in little spaces called lacunae
Cartilage collagenous fibers are embedded in a firm gel
Ossification is bone formation
Osteoblasts are bone forming cells, lay down organic material first and followed by calcium salts
Axial skeleton made of bones in center/axis of the body.
Axial skeleton bones skull, spine, chest, hyoid bone. (80)
Appendicular skeleton are bones(126) of Upper extremities and Lower extremities
Sutures are immoveable joints located in the skull
Major vertebrae categories Cervical(7), Thoracic(12), Lumbar(5)
False ribs 8th, 9th, 10th pair are connected to the cartilage of the 7th rib pair
True ribs 1-7 attached to the sternum by costal cartilage
Upper extremity bones clavicle, Scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
Lower extremity bones coxal, femur, patella. tibia, fibia, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
Coxal bone hip bone, ( ilium, ischium, pubis )
Arches forming the foot Medial longitudinal, lateral longitudinal. transverse (metatarsal)
Pelvis Female hip of wider structure, pelvis has broader, shallower shape, pelvis inlet and outlet much wider than Male
Major joints in skeleton Synarthroses, Amphiarthroses, Diarthroses
Synarthroses, no movement, sutures between cranial bones
Amphiarthroses, slight movement Symphysis pubis
Diarthroses free movement, knee, hip, elbow
Malignant tumors that effect bones Osteosarcoma, Chondrosarcoma
metabolic bone disease Osteoporosis Kyphosis of thoracic spine (dowager's hump)
Rickets metabolic bone disease loss of minerals Vitamin D deficiency (young children),
Osteomalacia metabolic bone disease loss of minerals Vitamin D deficiency (adults)
Osteomyelitis general name for bacterial infection of bone and marrow tissue
Open fracture bone fracture most likely result in infection and Osteomyelitis
Osteoarthritis common noninflammatory disorder of movable joints
Rheumatoid arthritis Ulnar deviation of finger inflammatory joint disease
Hyoid bone located base of tongue, only bone that does not articulate with other bones
Fontanels "soft spot" (6) ossification incomplete at birth,
Scapula with clavicle (shoulder blade) it makes up the shoulder girdle
Sternum manubrium, body and xiphoid process
Femur longest and heaviest bone in body
Zygomatic forms the cheek bone
Axial skeleton division head, neck and torso
Lordosis is an exaggerated thoracic curvature that is sometimes referred to as "sway back." This condition is often seen during pregnancy as the mother adjusts to changes in her center of gravity or may be seen as secondary to trauma.
Kyphosis abnormal thoracic curvature and is sometimes called a "hunchback." It is often the result of a vertebral compression in osteoporosis
Scoliosis refers to a lateral curvature, usually involving the thoracic vertebrae. It is a relatively common condition that appears before adolescence,
Hinge joint elbow joint
Saddle joint carpalmegacapals joint of thumb
Ball & socket joint shoulder joint, hip joint
Metacarpals These bones form the support structure for the palm of the hand.
endochondral ossification Most bones of the body are formed from cartilage models in a process called
Osteoporosis loss of bone mineral density and increased bone fragility
trabeculae spongy bone characteristic assemblage of needle-like structure
osteon structural unit of bone
canaliculi open passageway in spongy bone
structures diarthrotic joints Joint capsule, articular cartilage, ligaments
flexion & extension knee joint movements
Gouty arthritis(gout) is a metabolic condition in which uric acid increases in the blood.
joint capsule is made of fibrous connective tissue and is lined with a smooth, slippery synovial membrane.
transplant of bone marrow is a procedure that can possibly restore or enhance the body’s ability to form blood cells.
Cartilage structure matrix is flexible gel-like substance and lacks blood vessels
osteoclasts cell that resorb bone. (absorb again)
chondrocytes location lacunae of cartilage
Bone category Spongy / Compact
Ligament fibrous connective tissue; connects bone to bone
systemic pertaining to or affecting a particular body system.
patella largest sesamoid bone in the body
flexion reduces angle of a joint
Articulation joints
condyloid joint diarthrotic joint found between metacarpals and a distal
abduction movement away from midline
fibrocartilage Once this type of cartilage growth begins, it continues throughout life and is known as:
Created by: ptenz