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Stewart APHG Unit 1

AP Human Geography Vocabulary Terms from Unit 1

TermDefinition
Fieldwork The study of geographic phenomena by visiting places and observing how people interact with and thereby change those places
Human Geography The spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities and landscapes
Globalization The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact; the process transcends state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales
Physical Geography The spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and location of the earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals and topography
Spatial Pertaining to space on the Earth's surface; sometimes used as a synonym for geographic
Spatial Distribution Physical location of geographic phenomena across space
Pattern The design of a spatial distribution
Medical Geography The study of health and disease within a geographic context and from a geographical perspective; looks at sources, diffusion routes, and distributions of diseases
Pandemic An outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide
Epidemic Regional outbreak of a disease
Spatial Perspective Observing variations in geographic phenomena across space
5 Themes Location, Human-Environment Interaction, Region, Place, Movement
Location The geographical situation of people and things
Location Theory An attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated
Human-Environment Interaction The reciprocal relationship between humans and environment
Region an area on the earth's surface marked by a degree of formal, functional or perceptual homogeneity of some phenomenon
Place The uniqueness of a location
Sense of Place State of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character
Perception of Place Belief or "understanding" about a place developed through books, movies, stories or pictures
Movement The mobility of people, goods and ideas across the surface of the planet
Spatial Interaction The connectivity between places
Distance The measurement of the physical space between two places
Accessibility The degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations; it varies from place to place and can be measured
Connectivity The degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network
Landscape The overall appearance of an area; usually a combination of natural and human-introduced influences
Cultural Landscape The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape; layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants
Sequent Occupance The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
Cartography The art and science of making maps, including data, compilation, layout, and design; also concerned with the interpretation of mapped patterns
Reference Maps Maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of reference, typically latitude and longitude
Thematic Maps Maps that tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon
Absolute Location The position or place of a certain item on the surface of the earth as expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude
Global Positioning System Satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features
Geocaching A hunt for a cache, the coordinates which are placed on the internet by other geocachers
Relative Location The regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places
Mental Map Image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual's perception, impression, and knowledge of that space
Activity Space The space within which daily activity occurs
Generalized Map The process of selecting and representing information on a map in a way that adapts to the scale of the display medium of the map.
Remote Sensing A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study
Geographic Information Systems A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed and displayed to the user
Rescale Involvement of players at other scales to generate support for a position or an initiative
Formal Region A type of region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
Functional Region A region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
Perceptual Region A region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entitiy
Culture The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society
Culture Trait A single element of normal practice in a culture
Culture Complex A related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils
Cultural hearth Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture
Independent invention The term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other
Cultural Diffusion The expansion and adoption of a cultural element, form its place or origin to a wider area
Time-Distance Decay The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source
Cultural Barrier Prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture
Expansion Diffusion The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination
Contagious diffucion The distance=controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person
Hierarchical Diffusion A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spread by passing first among the most connected places or peoples
Stimulus Diffusion A form of diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place
Relocation Diffusion Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as the evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones
Geographic Concept Ways of seeing the world spatially that are used by geographers in answering research questions
Environmental Determinism The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development
Possibilism A response to determinism- that holds that human decision making, not the environment, is the crucial factor in cultural development
Cultural Ecology The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment
Political Ecology Approach to studying nature-society relations that is concerned with the ways in which environmental issues both reflect, and are the result of, the political and socioeconomic context in which they are situated
Terra Incognita Unknown or unexplored territory
Centrality The strength of an urban center in its capacity to attract producers and consumers to its facilities; a city's "reach" into the surrounding region
Pangaea The primeval supercontinent that broke apart and formed the continents and oceans as we know them today
Subduction The process that takes place at convergent boundaries by which one tectonic plate moves under another tectonic plate and sinks into the mantle as the plates converge
Divergent Boundary The linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other
Convergent Boundary An actively deforming region where two (or more) tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere move toward one another and collide
Transform Boundary Boundary that exists where two tectonic plates grind past each other
New Madrid Fault A series of faults at a weak spot in the earth's crust; it runs 150 miles from Arkansas into Missouri and Illinois; it was responsible for the most violent series of earthquakes in North American history
San Andreas Fault It is a continental transform fault that extends roughly 1300 km through California; it forms the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate
Alluvial A deposit of clay, silt, sand, and gravel left by flowing streams in a river valley or delta, typically producing fertile soil
Liquifaction Phenomenon in which the strength and stiffness of a soil is reduced by earthquake shaking or other rapid loading
Jackson Purchase Region A region of southwestern Kentucky, bounded by the Tennessee River on the east, the Ohio River on the north, and the Mississippi River on the west, that was ceded to the United States by the Chickasaw Peoples in 1818
Western Coal Fields Region It is characterized by Pennsylvanian age sandstones, shales and coal seams
Pennyroyal Region It is a large area of the state that features rolling hills, caves, and karst topography in general; t is also called the "Mississippi Plateau"
Bluegrass Region It makes up the northern part of the state where a majority of the state's population has lived and developed its largest cities
Knobs Region It is a narrow, arc shaped region consisting of hundreds of isolated hills
Eastern Mountains & Coal Fields Region Part of the Central Appalachian bituminous coalfield, including all or parts of 30 Kentucky counties; the region is known for its coal mining
Tropics The region between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn
Meridians A circle of constant longitude passing through a given place on the earth's surface and the terrestrial poles, most notably the International Date Line and Prime Meridian
Longitude The distance of a place east or west of the meridian at Greenwich, England, usually expressed in degrees and minutes
Latitude The distance of a place north or south of the earth's equator, usually expressed in degrees and minutes
Created by: JStewartMCHS