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Exam 1 Concepts

Fundamentals of Neurobiology

neurons are amitotic so how is learning and memory achieved? new connections between neurons are formed, new cells are not formed
neurons generate one of two states only due to all or nothing principles
do the characteristics of the states of neurons change? no
integration neurons integrate signals from many other neurons into one signal
what are the particles responsible for electrical current K+, Na+, Ca+, Mg+2
what is the difference between Na+ and K+ pumps in resting membrane potential Na+ pumps are tightly clamped so there is no movement of Na+ and K+ pumps are leaky so there is very slow and minimal minimal movement of K+
what type of transmembrane protein is Na+ pump selective gated ion channel
what type of transmembrane protein is K+ pump ion channel
describe the electrochemical gradients of Na+ and K+ Na+ : electrical influx and concentration influx K+: electrical influx and concentration eflux
why is the resting membrane potential -70 mV is the necessary size of the electrical field to offset the concentration gradient of K+ so there is basically no net movement of K+
what are the proteins responsible for the -70 mV resting potential Na+/K+ ATPase antiport that pumps 2 K+ into cell and 3 Na+ out while there is a leaky K+ ion channel
what is the purpose of the undershoot and does it happen all the time it causes refraction and changes neurons ability to have another action potential since the neuron is hyperpolarized and therefore would require more stimulus to start an action potential, hence preventing the neuron from overstimulating
what is the purpose of refraction prevents backpropagation so action potential is unidirectional and prevents neuron from overstimulating
what is the difference between absolute refraction and relative refraction absolute makes sure action potential is unidirectional. relative refraction prevents overstimulation and rundown of concentration gradients and occurs during undershoot, it controls the number of action potentials allowed in a given time period
why is the axon and axon hillock the only place where an action potential can be generated is has sufficient density of Na+/K+ channels
why do action potentials need to be regenerated along the axon loss of current occurs due to loss of charging capacitance to membrane of axon and to external environment
how are size and speed of action potentials related larger axons lose less charges to capacitance and have faster propagation speeds
where are neurochemicals produced and how are found in the terminals of neurons neurochemicals are produced in the cell body, packaged in vesicles, and moved to terminal via kinesins
where are neurotransmitters synthesized in terminal from the neurochemicals in vesicles
what defines the function of a neurotransmitter its receptor
describe electrical synpases they have high fidelity but low flexibility and are most likely used in developmental neurological systems
why are inactivation f neurotransmitters important it allows information to be passed and not aggregated back/forth between neurons therefore allowing unidirectional travel of a signal
what are the methods of neurotransmitter (NT) inactivation enzymatic degradation, reuptake, biotransformation, diffusion
how is the spinal cord developed ectoderm becomes neuroectoderm which becomes the dorsal hollow nerve cord (fluid filled) via invagination of the mesoderm
how was the brain gotten bigger and more complex without creating huge heads folding in on itself
how do we get more cortex without bigger brain infolding of cortex
what are the protecting mechanisms of the brain # of neurons- requires a great amount of loss for function loss. skull- compact and spongey material that diverts mechanical force throughout mass of whole bone. hydrostatic pressure of of CSF and and tight junctions that make the blood brain barrier
what allows for the flexibility of your spinal cord the meningese or dura does not attach to the vertebral column but only at the sacral canal
where would you extract CSF in the lumbar region of the spinal cord
where would insert anisthetic into epidural in the thoracical region of the spinal cord
each segment of spinal cord is specific for a specific dermatome but each spinal nerve comes from and goes to one segment above and below as well
Created by: LittleD331
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