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Exam 1 Terms

Fundamentals of Neurobiology

plasticity change as a consequence of prior experience and nature of experience describes nature of change
neurons -basis of brain function - creates and process info - number decrease with age
glia - there are a variety - the micro-environment conditions to facilitate neuron function
afferent receiving
efferent sending
amitotic no mitosis. neurons are always in G0 except when dying which serves as memory function
emergence multiple neuron connection that work together as one unit
central nervous system brain and spinal cord. structures that reside within bone structure
peripheral nervous system nerves
myelin sheath insulates axons to prevent loss of capacitance to external environment
oligodendrocytes cells that make myelin sheath in central nervous system. same type of cell as schwann
schwann cells cells that make myelin sheath in peripheral nervous system. same type of cell as oligodendrocytes
saltatory conductance "hopping" of action potential
nodes of ranvier places without myelin sheath that create new action potential and invades next segment of myelin
neurotransmitters chemicals that modulate the capacity of the circuit they are part of
electrical synpase transfer of current from one neuron to another via gap junctions-connexons
enzymatic degradation of neurotransmitters neurotransmitters are disassembled and cannot be reassembled as a form of inactivation
reuptake protein pumps pump neurotransmitters back into the neuron as a form of inactivation
biotransformation of neurotransmitters neurotransmitters are transformed into inactive form which can be reactivated as a form of inactivation
diffusion of neurotransmitters as a form of inactivation neurotransmitters diffuse into specific space of extracellular fluid so that they can find receptors specifically within that specific region of extracellular space
what is the function and location of cholinergic receptor neurotransmitters Function: PNS- somatic and autonomic. Location: organs, muscles, pons, and basal forebrain
what is the function and location of catalcholenergic recepter neurotransmitters Function: dopamine- behavior, neuroepinephrine- arousal, sleep, wakefulness. Location: dopamine- basal ganglia, mesolembic dopamine syptea VTA, midbrain, neuroepinephrine- locus colruleus
what is the function and location of serotinergic receptor neurotransmitters function: mood and affect which is chronic. location: dorsal naphe
what is the function of NMDA and AMPA EPSP
what is the function of GABAa and GABAc IPSP
what is the function and location of the diffuse neuromodulating system functions: controls everything. location: midbrain with axons extending throughout nervous system
anterior vs posterior front vs back
dorsal vs ventral top vs bottom
medial vs lateral close to middle vs. far from middle
proximal vs. distal close vs. far away
ipsaletal vs. contralateral same side vs. different side
coronal plane vertical plan dividing structure into anterior and posterior parts
sagital plan vertical plane dividing structure into right and left halves
rostral vs. caudal front vs. back
superior vs. inferior top vs. bottom
tansverse plane horizontal plane that divides structure into superior and inferior
ectoderm vs. endoderm vs. mesoderm 1 layer vs. 2 layers vs 3 layers. single layer of cells to blastulation to gastulation
tripartate spinal cord, brain, and brain stem
cortex laminar organization of cells that has 6 layers. cell bodies of neurons are on surface while axons are inside. most evolved structure of the brain
sulcus folding of cortex
gyrus raised region of folding of cortex
fissure deep folding of cortex
3 different regions of the brain cerebellum, cerebral, brain stem
gray matter no myelin, mostly cell bodies,
nuclei of gray matter collection of cell bodies with exact boundaries
substantia of gray matter collection of cell bodies with no exact boundaries
locus of gray matter highly defined boundaries that are small in number
ganglion of gray matter collection of cell bodies outside of central nervous system in peripheral nervous system
cortex of gray matter laminar layer of cell bodies
white matter axons
fiber of white matter one axon
bundle of white matter collection of axons that start and end in different places but all go through a one specific region
tract of white matter collection of axons that start and end at the same place and follow same pathway
nerves bundles of axons in peripheral nervous system
commisure of white matter bundle of axons that crosses one side of brain to other (corpus collusum)
frontal lobe movement and higher thinking
parietal lobe somatic sensation, integration, 3D visualization, processing
occiptal lobe vision
temporal lobe auditory, speech recognition, memory
subcortical structures diencyphalon, basal ganglia, limbic system, reticular activate system
diencyphalon most ancient part of cerebellum. includes thalamus, hypothalmus, epithalamus
thalamus relays processes and segregates signals, sleep
hypothalamus, visceral function, internal maintenance, endocrine system control, primitive emotions, behavior, hunger/thirst, circadian rhythm, BP, body temperature
epithalamus pineal secretes melatonin and choroid plexin secretes cerebral spinal fluid
brain stem include midbrain, pons, and medulla and functions in autonomic behavior
midbrain lies in brain stem between pons and higher brain structures and has all the cell bodies of brain stem and connects cerebrum with inferior structures
pons relays between brain structures and spinal cord and is between midbrain and medulla
medulla in brain stem and is between pons and spinal cord. controls visceral motor function: cardiovasculrar- BP, heart rate, respiratory- breathing, reflexes: protective mechanisms, vomiting, yawning, hiccuping, sneezing
spinal cord pathway for connections between body systems and brain and for axons (main highway)
cervical part of spinal cord C1-C8 back of neck to fingertips
thoracical part of spinal cord T1-T12 from calvicals to umbillicus
lumbar part of spinal cord umbillicus to back of legs
sacral part of spinal cord S1-S5 back of leg
dermatome surface area of a specific body area that has spinal nerve integration
dorsal horn (posterior) cell bodies of sensory neuron whose axons project to cord via dorsal root to brain
ventral horn (anterior) cell bodies of somatic motor neurons send axons via ventral root
lateral horn cell bodies for autonomic motor neurons for sympathetic nervous system that leave via ventral root (interneurons)
great bridge allows crossover of brain region. left side of brain control right and right side of brain controls left
plexis each region of muscle control
Created by: LittleD331
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