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Blood, Lymph, and Immune- Rev. Defs

hemophilia A hereditary disorder in which there is an impairment of the blood clotting mechanism.
hemoglobin A specialized plasma protein containing iron which gives blood its red colour and also carries O2 to body tissues.
immunocompetent Ability to develop an immune response or recognize antigens and respond to them.
edema Abnormal accumulation of fluids in the intercellular spaces of the body.
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) Abnormal activation of the proteins involved in blood coagulation, causing small blood colts to form in vessels and cutting off the supply of O2 to distal tissues.
thrombocytopenia Abnormal decrease in platelets caused by low production of platelets in the bone marrow or increased destruction of platelets in the blood vessels, spleen or liver.
hemosiderosis Abnormal increase of iron in the blood.
leukocytosis Abnormal increase of white cells.
lymphadenopathy Any disease of the lymph nodes.
hemoglobinopathy Any disorder caused by abnormalities in the hemoglobin molecule.
immunotherapy Any form of treatment that alters, enhances, stimulates or restores the body's natural immune mechanisms to treat disease.
von Willebrand disease Bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor, a "sticky" protein that lines blood vessels and reacts with platelets to form a plug that leads to clot formation.
antiserum Blood serum that contains antibodies.
megakaryocyte Cell with a large nucleus; fragments become platelets.
cytokine Chemical substance produced by certain cells that initiates, inhibits, increases or decreases activity in other cells.
pernicious anemia Chronic, progressive anemia found mostly in people older than age 50 due to lack of sufficient vitamin B12 needed for blood cell development.
blood Composed of a liquid portion called plasma, and a solid portion containing RBCs, WBCs, and platelets.
graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) Complication that occurs following a stem cell or bone marrow transplant in which the transplant produces antibodies against recipient's organs that can be severe enough to cause death.
phagocytosis Condition of ingesting cells.
leukopenia Decrease in white blood cells.
thrombocytopenia Decrease of platelets.
erythropenia Decreased red blood cells.
antimicrobials Destroy bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, depending in the particular drug, generally by interfering with the functions of their cell membrane or their reproductive cycle.
thrombolysis Destruction of a clot.
hemolytic anemia Destruction of RBCs, commonly resulting in jaundice.
erythrocytolysis Destruction of red cells.
dyspnea Difficulty breathing.
adenopathy Disease of a gland.
thrombolytics Dissolve blood clots by destroying their fibrin strands.
vertigo Dizziness.
myeloblast Embryonic WBC formed in bone marrow.
splenomegaly Enlargement of the spleen.
autoimmune disease Failure of the body to accurately distinguish between what is "self" and what is "non-self"
hematopoiesis Formation of blood cells and platelets in the bone marrow.
bone marrow magnetic resonance imaging Highly sensitive imaging procedure that detects lesions and changes in bone tissue and bone marrow, especially in multiple myeloma.
allergy injections Injection with increasing strengths of the offending antigen given over a period of months or years to increase tolerance to an antigen responsible for severe allergies..
reticulocyte Immature RBC.
folic-acid deficiency anemia Inability to produce sufficient red blood cells due to the lack of folic acid, a B vitamin essential for erythropoiesis.
transfusion Infusion of blood or blood products from one person to another.
homologous bone marrow transplant Infusion of bone marrow or stem cells from a compatible donor after a course of chemotherapy and/or radiation; also called allogenic transplant
bone marrow transplant Infusion of healthy bone marrow stem cells after the diseased bone marrow is destroyed by chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy; used to treat leukemia, aplastic anemia, and certain cancers.
autologous bone marrow transplant Infusion of the patient's own bone marrow or stem cells after a course of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
sickle cell anemia Inherited anemia that causes RBCs to become crescent, or sickle-shaped when O2 levels are low.
lymphoscintigraphy Introduction of a radioactive tracer into the lymph channels to determine lymph flow, identify obstructions, and locate the sentinel node.
iron-deficiency anemia Lack of sufficient iron in RBCs.
monocyte Leukocyte that is phagocytic; has a large nucleus.
eosinophil Leukocyte that protects the body by releasing toxins to destroy harmful invaders.
basophil Leukocyte that releases histamines and heparin; slightly phagocytic.
hematoma Localized accumulation of blood, usually clotted, in an organ, space, or tissue due to a break in, or severing of a blood vessel.
hypotension Low blood pressure.
multiple myeloma Malignant tumour of plasma cells in the bone marrow.
erythrocyte Mature red blood cell.
antifibrinolytics Neutralize fibrinolytic chemicals in the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, and urinary tract to prevent the breakdown of blood clots.
monospot Nonspecific rapid serological test for the presence of the heterophile antibody, which develops several days after infection by Epstien-Barr virus, the organism that caused infectious mononucleosis.
phlebotomy Obtaining blood for the purpose of testing.
Immunologist One who specializes in the study of protection.
hypochromic Pertaining to decreases of colour.
thrombocyte Platelet; initiates blood clotting.
sepsis Presence of bacteria or their toxins in the blood; also called septicemia or blood poisoning.
fat-soluble vitamins Prevent and treat bleeding disorders resulting from a lack of prothrombin, which is commonly caused by vitamin K deficiency.
anticouagulants Prevent blood clot formation by inhibiting the synthesis or inactivating one or more clotting factors.
antivirals Prevent replication of viruses within host cells.
graft rejection Process in which a recipient's immune system attacks a transplanted organ or tissue.
antibody Protective protein produced by B lymphocytes in response to the presence of a foreign substance called an antigen.
tachycardia Rapid heart beat.
erythema Redness of the skin.
anemia Reduction in the number of circulating red blood cells.
bone marrow aspiration Removal of a small sample of bone marrow using a thin aspirating needle for microscopic examination.
lymphadenectomy Removal of lymph nodes, especially in surgical procedures undertaken to remove malignant tissue.
sentinel node excision Removal of the first lymph node that receives drainage from cancer-containing areas and the one most likely to contain malignant cells.
thymectomy Removal/excision of the thymus gland.
myeloid Resembling bone marrow.
complete blood count Series of tests that includes hemoglobin; hematocrit; red and white blood cell counts; platelet count; and differential count; also called hemogram.
aplastic (hypoplastic) anemia Serious form of anemia associated with bone marrow failure and resulting in erythropenia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia.
natural killer cells (NK) Specialized lymphocytes that kill abnormal cells by releasing chemicals that destroy the cell membrane, causing its intercellular fluids to leak out.
hemocytoblast stem cell. from which other blood cells develop.
antigen Substance, recognized as harmful the the host, that stimulates formation of antibodies in an immunocompetent individual.
bile pigment Substances derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin and excreted by the liver.
lymphedema Swelling, primarily in a single arm or leg, due to an accumulation of lymph within tissues caused by obstruction or disease in the lymph vessels.
partial thromboplastin time (PTT) Test that measures the length of time it takes blood to clot to screen for deficiencies of some clotting factor; also called activated partial thromboplastin time.
prothrombin time (PT) Test that measures the time it takes for prothrombin to form a clot; also called pro time.
blood culture Test to determine the presence of pathogens in the bloodstream.
Shilling test Test used to diagnose pernicious anemia by determining if the body properly absorbs vitamin B12 through the digestive tract.
antinuclear antibody (ANA) Test to identify antibodies that attack the nucleus of the individual's own body cells.
plasma The liquid portion of blood where blood cells are suspended.
neutrophil The most numerous white cell, highly phagocytic.
morphology The study of shape.
viscous Thick, sticky.
myeloid tissue Tissue which resembles the myelocyte of bone marrow.
lymphoma Tumour of lymph tissue.
granulocyte Type of white blood cell containing granules; formed in the red bone marrow.
agranulocyte Type of white blood cell without granules.
biological Use of immune system stimulators to enhance the immune response in the treatment of certain forms of cancer, RA, and Crohn disease; also called biologic therapy or biotherapy.
lymphangiography Visualization of lymphatic channels and lymph nodes using a contrast medium to determine blockages or other pathologies of the lymph system.
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Widespread autoimmune disease that may affect the skin, brain, kidneys, and joints and causes chronic inflammation; also called discoid lupus if symptoms are limited to the skin.
lymphocytes White blood cell in blood and lymphatic tissues; provides protection from bacteria.
leukocyte White blood cell; prevents invasion of foreign microorganisms.
thrombocythemia Overproduction of platelets, leading to thrombosis or bleeding disorders due to platelet malformations.
Created by: spencertasha



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