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Mod 1 Med Terms

Med Terms Ch 2

anatomy study of the structures of the body
physiology study of the function of the structures of the body
anatomic position standing up straight, erect, and facing forward
midsagittal plane plane that divides the body in equal right and left halves
frontal plane vertical plane that divides body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
dorsal refers to the back of an organ or body (opp of ventral)
anterior situated in the front
posterior situated in the back
superior toward the head, above
inferior toward the feet, below
caudal toward the lower part of the body
medial direction toward, or nearer, the midline
lateral direction toward, or nearer, the side of the body
cranial cavity protects the brain
spinal cavity protects the spinal cord
homeostasis the process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment
thoracic cavity protects the heart and lungs
abdominal cavity contains the primary organs of digestion
pelvic cavity contains the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems
hypochondriac regions -right and left -below the ribs -covered by the ribs
peritoneum protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity
parietal paritoneum -outer layer -lines the interior of the abdominal wall
messentary -fused double layer (middle) -attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall
visceral peritoneum -inner layer -surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity
retroperitoneal behind the peritoneum -the kidneys are retroperitoneal
peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum
Phenylketonuria (PKU) -genetic disorder in which an essential digestive enzyme is missing -tested for at birth
histology the study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues
muscle tissue has the specialized ability to contract and relax
aplasia defective development, or congenital absence, of an organ or tissue
hypoplasia the incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells
anaplasia -change in the structure of their cells and orientation to each other -characteristic of tumor formation in cancers
hyperplasia enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues
endocrine glands -no ducts -hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream
adenitis inflammation of a gland
adenoma benign tumor of a gland (vs. adenocarcinoma - cancerous tumor)
adenomalacia abnormal softening of a gland
adenosis any disease or condition of a gland
adenosclerosis abnormal hardening of a gland
adenectomy surgical removal of a gland
patholgy the study of disease
etiology the study of the causes of diseases
pathogen disease-producing microorganism
bloodborne transmission spread of a disease through contact with blood or other body fluids that are contaminated with blood
epidemic a sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population group or area
pandemic an outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide
skeletal system -supports and shapes the body -protects the internal organs
idiopathic disorder an illness without known cause
nosocomial infection a disease acquired in a hospital or clinic setting
atresia the congenital absence of a normal body opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular
geriatrician physician who specializes in the care of the elderly
Created by: vanstellee