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Infection Control Review

What does mode of transmission mean? how microorganisms travel between hosts
direct contact person-person
indirect contact person-object-person
droplet transmission coughs or sneezes
vehicle route transmission via food, water, body fluids
airborne transmission dust,evaporated droplets, particles of hair/ skin, ventilation systems
vector transmission bird, animal, or insect
normal flora Natural to the body, do not cause disease.
bacteria Single-celled organisms that multiply by cell division, some cause infection, non-pathogenic.
viruses Cannot live on their own, need a host cell to multiply, very small organism, not seen by regular microscope.
fungi Single-celled, uses spores to reproduce.
protozoa Single-celled, found mostly in contaminated water and sewage systems. ie. Beaver Fever
How should you treat someone with HIV/AIDS respect, empathy, acceptance, dignity, warmth
What are standard precautions? PPE gloves, gowns, aprons, masks, protective eyewear. Protection from cross-contamination.
What are the contraindications for MMR? sesitivity, immunoglobulin, pregnancy
What is a pathogen? microorganism causing disease
What is chemical disinfection used for? used for heat sensitive disease
What is medical asepsis? killing germs after they leave the body
What is surgical asepsis? sterilization-destroy all pathogens before they enter the body
What is the most effective method of preventing the spread of infectious organisms? hand washing
why do vaccines work? the body responds in the same manner, whether exposed naturally or via a vaccine. Build up an immunity.
What does chain of infection mean? if one of the links of the chain of infection breaks, it cannot continue.
how can AIDS be transmitted? unprotected sex, shared needles/drugs equipment, injury from a needle or sharp with contaminated blood (tattoos, acupuncture, body piercings)
what is the "universal disinfectant"? bleach
What is postexposure prophylaxis? immediate and preventative treatment to prevent infection after exposure to a dangerous virus
autoclave a device using steam for sterilization
antigen a pathogen or any other substance that induces an antibody response
antibody a protein specific to a certain antigen that weakens or destroys pathogens
nosocomial infection a hospital-related infection; one that is not present or incubating when a patient is admitted to a hospital or a healthcare facility
systemic infection an infection that has spread to more than one region of the body
sharp any instrument with a sharp edge or point, such as a scalpel, scissors, or a needle
topical applied to the skin or affected area
anaerobic bacteria bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow
aerobic bacteria bacteria that require oxygen to grow
teratogenic Causing abnormalities in the fetus.
antiseptic A cleaning agent applied to living tissue to destroy pathogens
latent infection One in which the symptoms disappear and recur, while the disease-causing agent remains in the body.
sterile Completely free of pathogens.
sterilant A substance that destroys or eliminates all forms of microbial life in an inanimate environment.
disinfectant A chemical substance that destroys or eliminates specific species of infectious microorganisms. It is not usually effective against bacterial spores.
infection A disease process that results from the entry and spread of a microorganism.
contagious/communicable disease A disease that is spread from person to person.
immunity An individual's ability to fight off disease.
active infection An infection in which signs and symptoms are present.
otitis media An infection of the middle ear.
acute infection An infection that is time limited.
quarantine Isolating or separating a client, client-care unit or facility.
bactericidal Killing microorganisms.
local infection An infection that is confined to a specific region of the body.
sanitization Removal of gross contaminations and some microorganisms from instruments, skin, and so on, the lowest level of medical hygiene.
sterile techniques Methods to avoid contamination of sterile materials.
pathogen A microorganism that causes disease.
disinfection A more thorough removal of contaminants than sanitization but less thorough than sterilization.
nonpathogenic Non causing disease.
opportunistic infection An infection that does not ordinarily cause disease but does so under certain circumstances, for example, in compromised immune systems; so called because it takes advantage of an ""opportunity".
microorganism An organism so small that it can only be seen under a microscope.
remission A period in which a chronic infection shoes no symptoms.
exacurbation A period in which a chronic infection shows symptoms.
chronic infection One that is persistent over a long period of time, perhaps life.
sanitizer A substance that significantly reduces the bacterial population in an inanimate environment but does not destroy all bacteria or other microorganisms.
bacteriostatic Reducing or inhibiting the number of microorganisms.
relapse The re-emergence of an initial infection after it appears to have subsided but has not been cured.
recurrent infection A distinct episode of an infection after recovery from the initial infection; may involve the same pathogens or different ones.
immunoglobulin A serum that contains antibodies that can help protect an exposed person from contracting the disease.
asepsis A state in which pathogens are absent or reduced. There are two principal types of asepsis: medical and surgical.
sterilization The process of destroying all microorganisms, including bacterial endospores and viruses. The highest level of cleanliness.
virulence The power of a microbe to produce a disease in a particular host.
contamination The presence of pathogens on an object.
post exposure prophylasis Treatment after exposure to a pathogen.
asymptomatic Without clinical signs or symptoms.
Created by: lexieeesmith