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# ADV.D04 Ch12 Hndl

# ADV.D04 Ch12 - Specimen Handling, Transport, Processing

QuestionAnswer
These lab specimens are not centrifuged hematology, coagulation
Aliquot small sample of a specimen
Photosensitive affected by light
Critical laboratory value A blood value that is very low or very high. Doctor must be notified immediately upon finding such a blood value.
Pneumatic tube system Transport method used to send specimens through a pipe system internally between departments.
Turn around time (TAT) The time it takes to complete the phlebotomy and report the results.
Patient variables Factors that can change the blood values such as: diet, age, diurnal changes, stress
Transportation and handling variables Factors that can change blood values after phlebotomy and before testing. These can be temperature, exposure to light, delays in testing, improper storage temperatures, etc.
Variable, variables A variable is a factor of the environment or of the patient that has the potential of altering the value of the blood analytes.
Specimen processing and storage variables factors of preparing and preserving specimens such as exposure to light, over centrifugation, storage at wrong temperature, etc.
Specimen variables Factors regarding the blood specimen that was collected such as: too little blood in the tube, hemolysis due to shaking the blood while mixing, inadequate mixing of anticoagulant.
Labeling the specimen All specimens must have the patient name, ID#, time and date of collection, your initials
Thermolabile affected by temperature either hot or cold
Precentrifugation Specimen processing and handling before it is centrifuged. This includes blood drawing and transport to the laboratory.
Normal blood clotting in tubes can take 30 – 60 minutes
Clot activators particles of silica or glass or the chemical thrombin. These help activate the clotting process and can shorten the clotting time by 15 to 30 minutes.
Aerosol Small microscopic spray of particles released when the tube caps are removed.
Centrifugation The process of spinning blood specimens
Thixotropic gel A gel material that has liquid properties when agitated or stressed under centrifugation. This allows separation of plasma or serum from the cellular components of blood. It returns to a gel state after centrifugation stops.
Centrifuge Safety Balance tubes, keep tube caps in place, do not open centrifuge until it stops completely
How many time can you centrifuge a blood sample once
Postcentrifugation Handling and processing of specimens after centrifugation. This includes preparation for testing, storage at proper temperature.
Serum or plasma can remain in contact with blood cells As soon as possible but, no longer than
Room temperature is 22oC, 25oC
Refrigerator storage temperature is 2oC - 8oC
If testing cannot be done within 48 hours you preserve specimens at -20oC
Plasma should not be repeatedly frozen and thawed because… This can activate clotting factors.
Differential smears must be made within ______ after drawing the blood. One hour
When can you centrifuge anticoagulated specimens? Immediately
Fasting No food or drink for 8-12hrs. Small amounts of water are OK.
What affect does warfarin, Coumadin, and heparin have on the blood specimen? Prevents blood clotting
Anticoagulant a chemical that prevents blood clotting. These are used to preserve whole blood in specimen tubes and also used in patients to prevent internal blood clotting.
Centrifugation specimen handling/processing during centrifugation. The process of using centrifugal force to separate the liquid portion of blood from the formed elements.
Formed elements the cellular component of blood. These are the RBC, WBC, and PLT.
Important centrifuge rules (1) use proper speed & time, (2) do not open until the centrifuge has stopped completely, (3) monitor the temperature on temperature controlled centrifuges
Specimen priority (prioritization) ` STAT (within 15 minutes), TDM (exact time before and after a drug is given), Routine (bloodwork required upon admission), ASAP (when you have the time)
Pneumatic tube system a system of tube containers that travel through a pipe system inside of a facility/laboratory
laboratory reports must contain Patient ID & location, (2) collection information (venous, capillary, non­fasting, etc.) (3) Normal ranges for the test result (4) Test results with the proper units of concentration
Why can specimens be rejected for testing the label and requisition do not match, inadequate volume of blood, wrong tube, hemolyzed specimen, expired tube, drawn at the wrong time/date
Mixing blood tubes gently tilting 5 to 10 times. Do not shake. Shaking can cause hemolysis.
Common specimens that need to be chilled ammonia, blood gases, catecholamines, gastrin, lactic acid, parathyroid hormone, pyruvate
common specimens that need to be transported at body temperature called agglutinins, Cryofibrinogen, Cryoglobulins
lipemia the presence of fats in the blood
shipping biohazardous specimens (1) must have leakproof inner container, (2) must have a strong secondary outer container, (3) Must have biohazard symbol on the outer container visible on all four sides of the container.
Created by: rjmtoss