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HST303 C10 K

China, Japan & East Asia in World History - Chapter 10: Korea

QuestionAnswer
__ years of Japanese rule had created deep divisions within Korean society. 40
Most notably, Japan’s support of the landed class and its economic policies had led to massive tenancy and, as a result, an explosive potential for rural _____ _____ awaited liberation. class conflict
Active and passive complicity with the colonial state by many Koreans—especially _____ _____ —compromised as “collaborators” a significant portion of Korea’s elites. educated urbanites
The evaporation of the Japanese _____ left a power vacuum in Korea, bitterly contested by numerous pretenders to national leadership. empire
Korea lacked a unified _____ movement or a clearly transcendent _____ who might have unified the broad spectrum of contending political forces and negotiated with the defeated Japanese and victorious Allied powers. nationalist; leader
On the contrary, colonial rule had left a legacy of political _____. factionalism
Political factionalism opened the way for numerous segments of the _____ movement, representing political views from extreme left to extreme right, to compete for leadership. nationalist
Members of the coalition nationalist government in exile, newly organized as the _____ _____ _____ (KPG), were accompanied by elements of the Korean Restoration Army. Korean Provisional Government
Syngman Rhee came home from the United States without a domestic political base, basing his legitimacy on name recognition and a 40-year record as _____ _____. exile leader
In the north, Kim Il Sung, who had led one of the Korean _____ _____ based in Manzhouguo, returned sometime in September 1945. guerrilla groups
Koreas’ domestic conflict was compounded by foreign occupation; the _____ _____ in the south and _____ in the north. United States; USSR
Governor-General Abe had only a _____’s notice of the home government’s decision to surrender. week
Governor-General Abe immediately sought out _____ Korean leaders to act as conduits for the transfer of power. moderate
Governor-General Abe first approached Song Chinu, a prominent moderate nationalist leader not compromised by _____. collaboration
Fearing that working with the Japanese would damage his political future, _____ refused to lead during the transfer of power. Song
On the morning of August 15, Abe approached a moderate leftist, Yŏ Unhyŏng, who agreed to organize a coalition to accept the surrender and guarantee the safety of the Japanese _____. population
_____ had impeccable nationalist credentials, a long history of service to nationalist causes, and while sympathetic to Korean communists he had never joined the Communist Party.
The KPR leadership attempted to bridge the divide between the right and left , but its first political program outlined a decidedly _____ agenda. progressive
The KPR’s 27-point platform guaranteed civil rights—speech, association, and religion—and _____ _____ for _____. equal rights for women
The KPR’s 27-point platform proposed _____ of major industries, communications, railways, and shipping. nationalization
The KPR’s 27-point platform provided for the confiscation of the lands of Japanese & “national traitors” (collaborators), to be distributed without payment to peasants who would cultivate them; and it limited agricultural rent to __ percent of the crop. 30
Until the arrival of the US occupying force _____ _____ after Japan’s surrender, the KPR continued to forge alliances with other groups in the cities. three weeks
The arrival of US forces on September 8 under General _____ __ _____, commander of the XXIV Corps from Okinawa, began what became an occupation of Korea south of the 38th parallel of latitude and a new intrusion of foreign power into Korean affairs. John R. Hodge
The origins of the decision that the United States and USSR would jointly occupy Korea lay in discussions between _____, _____, and the _____ during the Cairo Conference of December 1943. England, China, and the United States
The Cairo Conference established a principle of _____ for Japan’s colonial possessions, the ultimate independence of which would be granted, in the now-famous diplomatic phrase, “in due course.” trusteeship
Meetings of the Allied leaders, including Stalin, at Yalta and Potsdam in early ____ reaffirmed the concept of trusteeship. 1945
US strategists negotiated in July to bring the USSR into the _____ _____ with Japan, making the Soviets relevant to the disposition of Japan’s territories after its defeat. final battles
At Yalta, the United States conceded occupation of _____ and Korea to Stalin. Manchuria
After the atomic bombs and Japan’s sudden, unanticipated surrender, US negotiators moved to limit Soviet involvement in Korea—what one historian calls America’s “_____ _____ _____ _____.” first act of containment
On August 10–11, with Soviet troops already moving onto the peninsula, the Americans proposed a joint occupation, with the USSR occupying the north and the United States the south, the two zones divided by the _____ _____. 38th parallel
In assigning the 38th parallel to divide US and Soviet zones, we find a rare historical moment—a _____, _____ decision spawned an aftermath of terrible import, in this case for the Korean people. Single; identifiable
During a meeting in DC, Colonel Bonesteel, commander of US forces in Korea (late 1960s), & Major Rusk, secretary of state in the Kennedy administration, were given an ____ to create a boundary for the proposed US–USSR occupation. hour
Using a small wall map, the two men settled on the 38th parallel, placing Seoul, along with most of Korea’s _____ _____ and _____ _____ and two-thirds of its population, under US jurisdiction. light industry; agricultural production
The almost casual, hurried decision to use the 38th parallel sowed the first seed of long-term _____ of the Korean peninsula. division
To the surprise of many American leaders, Stalin _____ the 38th parallel. accepted
Nothing could have stopped a complete Soviet takeover of Korea, and forward units of the Red Army had already reached the environs of _____, only to be recalled behind the newly created demarcation line. Seoul
From ____ until ____, we thus must recognize Korea’s division into northern and southern zones of occupation. 1945 until 1948
The economic and _____ policies of USAMGIK reflected its reliance on conservative Koreans. social
While providing some tenant relief in the form of _____ _____, USAMGIK refused to consider comprehensive land reform in its first years. rent controls
Under USAMGIK, laws also limited _____ _____, for Hodge and his advisers considered them hotbeds of communist agitation. labor unions
The policies of the KPR in the north were decidedly revolutionary, most notably a sweeping _____ _____. land reform
The KPR nationalized large-scale industry, though small factories continued under _____ ownership. private
Within several months of liberation, two very different _____ took shape on the peninsula. occupations
While the idea of trusteeship implied that a _____, _____ Korean government would ultimately emerge, the joint occupation structure created obstacles to this process from the very beginning. single, unified
By the end of 1945, the elements had been put in place for the evolution of separate _____ on the peninsula. states
Koreans had never imagined a separate-states outcome, for it resulted from the growing animosity between the United States and USSR and a _____ of political forces around each occupier. polarization
The Soviet recognition of the People’s Committees and their usurpation by the Korean communists, the thorough-going land reform, and the early _____ reform program had laid the groundwork for Korean communist dominance in the north. progressive
Hodge’s decisions to abolish the People’s Committees by force, not to recognize the KPR, and to establish a military government favorable to _____ and _____ interests anticipated the emergence of a conservative Korean regime in the south. landed; business
The _____ governments also worked to resolve the Korean situation. Allied
The December 1945 Moscow Agreement between Great Britain, the United States, and the USSR attempted to create a roadmap for Korea’s future and the _____ of _____ forces. withdrawal; occupation
The Moscow Agreement established: a provisional Korean ____ government; a ____ ____ (composed of US & Soviet representatives) to aid in the formation of such a government; & a ____-____ trusteeship over Korea by the US, the USSR, Great Britain, & China. democratic; Joint Commission; five-year
Initially, Korean _____ and communists alike denounced the Moscow Agreement, particularly trusteeship. conservatives
In time the communists embraced the Moscow Agreement plan, using the south’s _____ as a pretext to maneuver them out of representative bodies in the north. opposition
The _____ _____, a nice idea on paper, had little chance for success, given the rivalry between the occupiers. Joint Commission
Through 1946 and 1947, the Joint Commission foundered on Soviet and US _____ over a host of issues. disagreement
During the Joint Commission impasse, both Syngman Rhee and his conservative allies in the south and Kim Il Sung and the Korean communists in the north continued their _____ of political power. consolidation
By the summer of ____, all the ingredients for a separate southern Korean government were in place. 1947
The military government created a Representative Democratic Council, with _____ _____ at its head. Syngman Rhee
Eventually, USAMGIK inched toward the creation of a separate South Korean government by establishing an _____ _____ _____ _____. Interim Korean Representative Assembly
With the Joint Commission at an impasse due to US–Soviet rivalry, the United States brought the Korea question to the new _____ _____. United Nations
In Feb 1948, the General Assembly of the UN gave the US a mandate to establish a United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea to conduct the ____ of a national assembly that could form a unified gov't & negotiate the withdrawal of all occupation forces. election
The Koreans in the _____ rejected the idea of elections. north
UNTCOK scheduled its election for May 10, ____. 1948
The north refused _____ access, so the election proceeded only in the south. UNTCOK
The outcome of the 1948 election established a _____ _____, which elected Syngman Rhee its chairman. National Assembly
The National Assembly adopted a new _____ establishing the Republic of Korea (ROK) with, not surprisingly, Rhee as its first president. constitution
In response, a _____ _____ _____ met on September 3, 1948 in Pyongyang to ratify a constitution; it elected Kim Il Sung premier and Pak Hŏnyŏng vice premier of a new government, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Supreme People’s Assembly
The late summer of 1948 saw the establishment of two formal Korean states, the _____ in the south and the _____ in the north. ROK; DPRK
38th parallel: That line of convenience separating occupying powers had become a _____ _____. national border
Created by: silvrwood