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HST303 L14 - 2Koreas

China, Japan & East Asia in World History - Lecture 14: The 2 Koreas

Few Koreans saw a new North/South division as something they wanted, and most had not expected it to become a _____ state. permanent
There were numerous _____ _____ over the next few years in attempt to reunify since many Koreans wanted to reunify their country. border skirmishes
Both the U.S. and the Soviet Union initially restrained the Korean governments in their pursuit for fear of each other and for fear of another large scale _____. war
Despite fears of a war, in 1950 Stalin approved _____ _____ _____’s plan for the attack of South Korea. Kim Il Sung
Stalin did not commit to any _____ Soviet participation in Kim Il Sung’s attack on South Korea. active
At the same time, in the U.S. the loss of China to the _____ had strengthened the conviction of political leaders to stop the spread of communism. communists
South Korea’s _____ was considerably larger than that of the North, but most _____ _____ was located in North Korea. population; heavy industry
North Korean forces were much better _____ and _____ than their South Korean counterparts, and many of them had experience in combat through fighting for the communists in China. equipped; prepared
On June 25, 1950, North Korean forces launched a _____ _____ across the 38th parallel into South Korea. massive offensive
President Truman committed U.S. forces to defend South Korea, and the 7th Fleet was sent to the straits of Taiwan to prevent a possible communist invasion of _____. Taiwan
The U.N. immediately condemned the North Korean attack, and the war became a __ __ _____. U.N. action
Forces from numerous countries joined the war efforts, but by far the largest contingent was provided by the U.S. under the command of ____ ____, who at this point was still the Supreme Command for the Allied Powers in Japan, & so spread rather thinly. General MacArthur
The reason why the U.N. could act so quickly without interference from the Soviet Union was because the Soviets were _____ the U.N. from January to August 1950 because China’s seat continued to be occupied by Chiang Kai-Shek rather than Mao Zedong. boycotting
Seoul fell within 3 days, and after 3 weeks, more than __/__ of South Korea had been captured by the North. ½
By August 1950, the U.N. was able to make extensive use of _____ _____ and _____, and the balance of power shifted. heavy weapons; airpower
By the end of September 1950, North Korean forces had been driven back across the __ _____. 38th parallel
President Truman authorized General MacArthur to proceed north as long as the _____ or the _____ _____ did not become involved. PRC; Soviet Union
The _____ announced through 3rd party channels that they would intervene should American troops cross into North Korea, but the message was not generally taken seriously. PRC
By the end of October, U.N. forces had advanced as far north as the _____ _____, which marks the border between China and Korea. Yalu River
On October 16th, _____ forces started to cross into North Korea without being detected and proceeded south. There they began to attack South Korean and American units. Chinese
At this point the Chinese forces were equipped extremely _____, but Mao once again promoted his belief in people power that relied on manpower rather than on technology. poorly
The Chinese troops hid in the difficult _____ of North Korea. terrain
When MacArthur launched his “Home by Christmas” offensive on November 24th, he did not realize that there were over ____ Chinese soldiers in the mountains that separated the 2 main U.N. columns. 200,000
On November 27th, the Chinese forces attacked, and by the beginning of January _____ had fallen a second time. Seoul
MacArthur urged an attack on _____, which Truman considered too risky and costly. China
Truman ordered that all _____ _____ about the Korean war had to be cleared with the state department first. public statements
MacArthur continued to violate Truman’s order to clear public statements. Eventually he wrote an open letter promoting the establishment of a _____ _____ with the help of Chiang Kai-Shek’s Nationalists in Taiwan. second front
Truman saw MacArthur’s letter urging a second front as _____ and relieved MacArthur of his command on April 11, 1951. insubordination
By June 1951 a _____ around the 38th parallel had developed. stalemate
Cease fire talks drew out slowly, leading to a _____ on July 27, 1953. truce
About 33,000 Americans and about ____ Chinese were killed. 800,000
____ Koreans were killed, wounded, or missing. 3 million
An official _____ to the war has never been declared, and to this day the U.S. has about 38,000 troops stationed in South Korea. end
With Soviet assistance, North Korea recovered _____. quickly
However, North Korea’s pursuit of extreme _____ eventually led them into isolation. independence
Soviet assistance diminished, and the initial success of _____ _____ soon stagnated, and then declined. industry building
Most of the budget was used for _____ purposes. military
In 1995 and 96, environmental damage, bad weather, and lack of fertilizer and irrigation pumps led to a major _____ that killed about 1 million people. famine
At the same time as the famine, North Korea’s sporadic _____ developments continue to spark international concern. nuclear
In his youth, the North Korean leader, Kim Il Sung, had been an anti-Japanese guerrilla leader in _____, where he cooperated with the Chinese communists. Manchuria
Kim Il Sung spent most of WWII in the _____ _____ and was installed as leader with their help. Soviet Union
After Korean war, Kim Il Sung developed his own philosophy of _____-_____, which became the ideology of North Korea. self-reliance
Many communist countries formed _____ _____ of their leaders, but none as extreme as North Korea. personality cults
Images of Kim Il Sung were everywhere, and eventually he set up what some scholars describe as a “_____ _____” in which leadership was hereditary. socialist monarchy
_____ _____ _____ took over after his father’s death in 1994, and after he died in December 2011, his son _____ _____ _____ took over from him. Kim Jong Il; Kim Jong Un
South Korea remained _____ after the war. poor
A land distribution program implemented by the U.S. finally broke the power of the Yangban elite, and Korea became a much more _____ society. egalitarian
Despite land redistribution, South Korean economy did not develop well, and they mainly relied on _____ _____. U.S. aid
Although South Korea was founded as a _____ _____, after the Korean War, Syngman Rhee—the South Korean president—began to rule in an authoritarian manner. constitutional democracy
Syngman Rhee detained _____ _____ members until they voted in his way. National Assembly
In 1960, after Syngman Rhee was accused of _____ _____, he ordered the police to fire on student protestors, and many were killed. electoral fraud
The U.S. and the Korean army withdrew their support for _____ _____ and he was forced to resign. After this he retired in exile on Hawaii. Syngman Rhee,
A few months after Syngman retired, a military junta organized a coup. They suspended the _____, banned _____ activities and expression, and imposed a strict _____. constitution; political; censorship
As a result of the military junta in South Korea, most _____ _____ closed. daily newspapers
Until 1993, South Korea remained under authoritarian _____ rule. military
Created by: silvrwood