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HST 303 - Lec7

China, Japan & East Asia in World History - Lecture 7

Private _____ flourished during late Ming period commerce
Most of the private trade during the late Ming was _____ domestic
During the late Ming period, the _____ _____ was reopened Grand Canal
The Grand Canal made it easier for government to get _____ paid as tax from the south to the north grain
During the late Ming period, both government and private traders made use of the canal and efficiently connected _____ in the south. waterways
The _____ became widely used during the late Ming period. abacus
Ming were still suspicious of foreign trade, so foreign trade was mainly _____. contraband
During the late Ming period, there was a flourishing contraband trade with _____. Japan
In China, Japanese contraband was seen as luxury goods: Japanese _____ _____ and metalwork lacquer ware
During the late Ming period, exotic goods: edible _____ _____ from Indonesia, turkeys from America sea slugs
_____ started to become popular in China during the 17th century Tobacco
Eventually government policies relaxed during the late Ming period and became more open toward foreign trade. Some _____ became officially opened up for all trade. ports
Portuguese first to establish themselves in the Ming area, and by the 1550s they had established a permanent base at _____. Macao
1571 –_____ established base in Manila in the Philippines, but most of the trade there was Chinese. Spanish
European participation in Asian trade was mainly through _____. money
Gold and silver from the Americas was currency, but otherwise Asians did not yet desire any_____ _____. Western goods
The Dutch were driven from their base in Taiwan (which they had from 1624 – 1662) by Chinese _____ pirates
Pirate leader _____ _____ became first Chinese ruler of Taiwan Zheng Chenggong
After Zheng Chenggong became the ruler of Taiwan, many Europeans then mainly received Chinese goods in their Southeast Asian bases through Chinese _____ who had settled there, rather than to get involved themselves. middlemen
During the late Ming, members of Catholic _____ order came to China Jesuit
Jesuits were very educated since they required 9 years of study of _____ and _____ sciences ; humanities
Jesuits brought with them many new things - Introduction of world maps, _____. telescopes
Jesuits converted 10s of 1000s of Chinese by the end of the __th century. Some scholars argue that there may have been as many as 200,000. 17
Jesuits were well-respected for their _____ since _____ was always valued in China. education; education,
Another reason for the popularity of Jesuits - accepted _____ as secular philosophy, rather than a religion, and allowed it to be practiced alongside Christianity. Confucianism
Missionaries from other orders were outraged that Jesuits allowed Confucianism, and so the _____ banned practice of toleration of Confucianism (Jesuit practices). Pope
The Pope’s banning of tolerance of Confucianism severely limited _____ in China. conversion
The Europeans in China were also very interested in local _____, philosophy, and luxury goods maps
Many Europeans were fascinated by China’s ancient culture because it began long before the then accepted date of the _____ _____. biblical flood
Intellectualism and wealth among the Chinese spread during late Ming times, which caused popular cultural _____ fashions
Late Ming fashion items to own included paintings, calligraphy, _____ _____, antique bronzes musical instruments
Late Ming was also a period of extravagant _____. landscaping
Many books on various subjects emerged during the late Ming period . Male literacy rate estimated at __-__% in 17th century 40; 50
Despite the wealth of its population, the Ming government was _____, started to disintegrate bankrupt
_____ conquest of China began in 1644 Manchu
The Manchus formed one of the greatest early modern empires, often referred to as a _____ _____Empire. Gun Powder
Manchu were a new group, with the people largely made up of _____ Jurchen
The Manchu language was essentially the _____ language Jurchen
_____, 1559 – 1626, founder of Manchu imperial line Nurgaci
Nurgaci invented the _____ System Banner
The banner system helped _____ large forces organize
The banner system initially brought different _____ together under one banner ethnicities
Banner status quickly became _____ and closed off hereditary
All Banner people had to wear a certain _____ and clothing, and learn how to speak Manchu. This created new, unique ethnic identity hairstyle
Nurgaci’s successor adopted emperor title and dynastic name of _____ Qing
The Manchu were closely associated with the _____. Mongols
At the same time as the Manchu Qing empire was rising in the Northeast, Mongol _____ empire was rising in the Northwest Zhungar
A common thread linking the Qing and Zhungar was _____ _____. Tibetan Buddhism
The Qing and Zhungar were both patrons of _____ _____. Tibetan Lamas
1578 – Zhungar Mongols bestowed title of _____ _____ onto a Tibetan Buddhist leader Dalai Lama
Manchus included Tibet in the orbit of the Qing dynasty and made Tibet a _____. Qing garrison placed at Tibetan capital of Lhasa in 1720 protectorate
The Manchu destroyed _____ empire by 1759 Zhungar
Tibetan Buddhism remained important for the Manchu, and dozens of buildings that they captured in _____ were dedicated to it. Beijing
Even before the Manchu invasion, rebellion erupted in _____ China Ming
1644 – rebel leader _____ _____ captured Beijing Li Zicheng
When the rebels captured Beijing, a loyal Ming general requested _____ assistance Manchu
In 1644, Manchu forces defeated _____ army and later the same year entered Beijing rebel
The Manchu took measures to gain popularity in China: tax cuts, full _____ _____ for last Ming emperor ceremonial burial
After taking Beijing, the Manchu argued that the _____ _____ _____ had passed on to them. Mandate of Heaven
Manchus felt the Mandate of Heaven passed to them because took control of northern China relatively easy, so clearly the previous imperial line had _____. failed
The Manchu used Confucian philosophy to their advantage to take over in China. Despite that, there was fierce _____ in the South resistance
Manchu conquest of China not fully completed until 1683 when they took over _____. Taiwan
During the Qing dynasty, there remained much _____ among Chinese population. discontent
Manchus feared _____ because of Chinese discontent. rebellion
Manchu _____ people set themselves up as separate ruling elite Banner
Manchu Banner people were originally only allowed to serve as _____ soldiers or officials. salaried
Manchus maintained their own language and names. Their women did not_____ _____ _____. bind their feet
_____ between Manchu and Chinese was forbidden. Chinese could not move to _____. Intermarriage; Manchuria
Manchu _____ was enforced by law. hairstyle
Official Qing languages: Manchu, _____, Chinese Mongol
Over the centuries, it became difficult to maintain Manchu as a language since the Banner people made up only about __% of the total population, and today the Manchu language is nearly extinct. 1
_____ influence remained important during the Qing dynasty. Tibetan
The beginning of the late Choson period in Korea is usually marked by 1592 – first _____ invasion Japanese
Japan’s intention to was eventually invade China, so 158,000 men landed in Korea. They took _____, the Choson capital, in 3 weeks Seoul
Japanese _____ overran nearly the whole Korean peninsula. samurai
Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin interrupted Japanese _____ _____and forced victory shipping lines
First extensive use of iron plated warships invented in Korea – called _____ _____ Turtle Ships
_____ eventually sent support force from China to Korea, and Korean action against the Japanese began all over the peninsula. Ming
1597 – second Japanese invasion. Unsuccessful. _____, the driving force behind invasions campaign, died, bringing an end to it. Hideyoshi
Korea had been devastated by invasion, turned to _____ isolationism
Even before the Manchus started to attack the Ming dynasty, they invaded _____ in 1627 and 1637 Korea
Choson Korea became a Manchu _____ _____ tributary state
Despite being a tributary state of Manchu, many Koreans looked down on Manchus as _____. barbarians
With China under Manchu rule, Koreans saw Korea as last remaining seat of proper _____ civilization Confucian
During Manchu rule over Korea, agricultural techniques improved, new crops arrived from the _____. Americas
As a result of improved agriculture in Korea during Manchu rule, _____ _____ and market economy became much more important. cash farming
During Manchu rule over Korea, Korea remained extremely isolationist, and trade was done mainly _____ _____. within Korea
There were very few Christians in Korea during Manchu rule, and after 1790 Christianity could not be practiced due to papal ban on inclusion of Confucian practices – edict that Confucian _____ _____ could not be practiced by Catholics. ancestral worship
1543 – stranded Portuguese brought _____ to Japan for the first time. firearms
Portuguese weapons were replicated by Japanese _____. artisans
Despite newfound firearm technology, after _____’s failed invasions of Korea, the plans of expanding the empire beyond Japan’s borders were abandoned and Japan became more isolationist Hideyoshi
During Japan’s isolationist period, there was trade with Portuguese as middlemen between the very productive Japanese _____ _____ and China where silver was currency silver mines
Trade brought great wealth to Japanese nobles--_____ became wealthy, built larger armies, strengthened their castles Daimyo
New fortifications and strategies were needed because of newly introduced firearms. The days of _____ combat between mounted warriors were definitely coming to an end. single
Middle of 16th century, Japan was divided into around __ Daimyo domains, which were pretty much independent states. 120
One of the Daimyo domain leaders, _____ _____ (1534 – 1582) rose to power by first assisting the Shogun militarily, and then he exiled Shogun Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga started to reunify Japan. He ruled largely through _____ _____, rather than through any administrative structure. military force
Resistance to Oda Nobunaga was largely from _____ sects and was thrown down brutally Buddhist
1582 – Oda was murdered. The former military leader, _____ assumed command over Oda’s forces. Within 8 months reunification of Japan was complete. Hideyoshi
To make this possible, Hideyoshi had to allow many of the Daimyu to continue largely as they had before. Many of his allies were quite strong _____ to him, and some owned more than him. competition
1588 – ‘_____ _____” to disarm peasantry Sword Hunts
Clear line was drawn between _____ and Samurai for the first time with the Sword Hunts. peasants
After Hideyoshi’s death at the time of the second Japanese invasion of Korea, his strongest ally, Tokugawa Ieyasu, became Shogun. He held unchallenged military power & had the right _____ for the position to be granted the Shogunate. ancestry
_____ Shogunate (1603 – 1868) Tokugawa
After a _____ rebellion (1637/38) during the Tokugawa Shogunate, foreign influences were even more strictly limited Christian
Foreign travel for Japanese people banned in ____ 1635
Portuguese and _____ were expelled from Japan during the Tokugawa Shogunate. Spanish
During the Tokugawa Shogunate, there was some limited, strictly controlled trade exchange with the _____. Dutch
During the Tokugawa Shogunate, Japan continued a cultural exchange with mainland China, and the Confucian _____ was founded as a result. academy
During the Tokugawa Shogunate, all Japanese had to register with a _____ temple and confirm that they were not Christian Buddhist
Tokugawa period was the _____ _____ of Confucianism in Japan golden age
During the long period of peace in the Tokugawa period, Samurai formulated _____: the way of the military gentleman Bushido
Samurai justified their peace-time non-productive existence by claiming that leisure time allowed them to cultivate Confucian values of _____, _____, and _____, and that they were in the position to set a virtuous example to the commoners. loyalty; duty; service
The Tokugawa Shogunates did not eliminate the Daimyo, but they were required to swear oath of allegiance. _____ were alliances and were supervised. Restriction on number of _____ men and castles that could be maintained at the same time. Marriages; armed
Daimyos had to spend half their time in _____ (modern day Tokyo), the Tokugawa Shogun’s city Edo
Spending ½ their time in Edo kept Daimyos under control: put family members in _____ positions, extra expense drained resources from having to maintain 2 households. vulnerable
As a result of Daimyos spending ½ their time in Edo, new networks of _____ and _____ _____centering on Edo were developed. roads; communication lines
During Tokugawa times, castle towns developed around _____ of Samurai who needed goods and resources, so trade was going through these channels quite frequently.
During Tokugawa times, general demand in Edo at the _____ _____ increased, and the economy flourished in new towns and in Edo castle towns
During Tokugawa times, _____ and _____ moved to the new towns merchants and artisans
During Tokugawa times, much high and low class cultural _____ developed entertainment
In the 1st century of the Tokugawa period, there was population increase—the population of Japan more than _____. doubled
During Tokugawa times, rural population became wealthier through new sidelines (e.g. _____ production and _____ _____ brewing) and related trade sake; soy sauce
During Tokugawa times, Daimyo still collected taxes in kind and needed big merchant houses to turn it into money. Many lost out while merchant houses _____. prospered
During Tokugawa times, Daimyos had to cut _____ salaries, leaving many impoverished and discontent Samurai
During Tokugawa times, the Japanese perfect social order undermined - low status _____ and _____ who had never been allowed to aspire to higher status were better off than many old elites. peasants and merchants
Created by: silvrwood