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HST303 - Lec6

China, Japan & East Asia in World History - Lecture 6

After the downfall of the Tang Empire, a brief period of _____ with numerous dynasties and regimes competing for power took place. division
Eventually a military commander, Zhao Kuangyin, declared himself emperor and founded _____ dynasty in 960. Song
To deal with the problems of warlordism, Zhao Kuangyin effected _____ of military command and civil administration. Separation
Zhao Kuangyin relieved all of his _____ from military command. generals
The result of relieving all of Zhao’s generals from military command, was_____ _____, and the empire was vulnerable. military weakness
At the time of the Song dynasty, Khitan nomads had set up a semi-Chinese style _____ dynasty in the North. Liao
The Liao dynasty took over Northeastern China, and they were paid _____ by the Song, who couldn’t afford to stand up to them with the weakened military situation. tribute
Another non-Chinese dynasty, the Western Xia dynasty took over the substantial territory of _____ China. Northwestern
Northern _____ had gained independence during the Tang downfall. Vietnam
Both within the Khitan territory and to its north lived the _____ tribes. Jurchen
Although Jurchen were non-nomadic tribal people from the North, they were skilled in nomadic-style _____ warfare. cavalry
1114 – The Jurchen attacked the Khitan Liao dynasty. Set up their own dynasty title called _____. Jin
1122 – After their destruction of the Khitan Liao dynasty, the Jurchen started to attack _____ China in the south. Song
The Song dynasty was defeated by the Jurchen, their emperor captured, and they withdrew south (China). Afterwards, the Jurchen dynasty was known as _____ _____(1127 – 1279). Southern Song
After defeating the Song, the Jurchen border stabilized at _____ River, about 100 miles north of Yangzi River. Huai
Many Jurchen moved from _____ to China. Manchuria
1153 – The Jurchen capital was relocated to what is now _____. Beijing
Jurchen were a minority and made up about __% of the population. 10
2 – 3 million Jurchen ruled about __ million Chinese. 30
After an initial period of separation, there was much _____ between Jurchen and Chinese, adoption of Chinese language and government style. Intermarriage
While the Song in the south were militarily weak, _____ and _____ development flourished. Economic; cultural
The Southern Song Traded with Southeast Asia, Persia, Arabia, India and even _____. Spain
The Southern Song had the largest _____ in the world, _____ compasses, and water-tight compartments, going back at least to the 12th century. ships; magnetic
Main Trade items of the Southern Song: _____, _____, _____, _____, _____. Textiles, porcelain, pepper, rice, sugar
The largest importer of coins and porcelain from China during the Southern Song time was most likely _____. Japan
The Southern Song had built a commercialized, _____ sophisticated urban society. technologically
The Southern Song had an advanced _____ system where merchants combined capitol for limited investments and credit was available on commission from local brokers. credit
The Southern Song had extensive circulation of _____ (due to wood-block printing) printed by the central and local government, private academies, professional bookshops, and individuals, etc. books
The Southern Song had a relatively high level of _____ and book _____. education; knowledge
There were many ways of becoming wealthy, but for the Southern Song, a Mandarin _____ was the most respected career path. official
During the Southern Song times, nearly all officials held their office based on academic degrees achieved through _____ graded written tests. anonymously
During Southern Song times, the number of degrees held went up enormously from Tang times. About __% of men eligible to participate in the empire-wide series of examinations. 95
During Southern Song times, the lowest level of exams were _____ tests held in every county. qualifying
During Southern Song times, there was a small number of government offices available, but _____ was gained from participation in the examination system alone. prestige
The prestige of participating in the exam system during the Southern Song times really helped shape a society focused on education and book learning in which the elite were the _____. scholars
Wealthy families during the Southern Song times produced most degree holders since they could afford to pay for their sons to have _____. tutors
The Southern Song exam system did not provide as much _____ _____ as is sometimes thought. upward mobility
But by premodern standards, the Southern Song was really a very _____ social order. fluid
The intellectual development throughout Southern Song society also brought on a _____-_____ revival. Neo-Confucian
The Neo-Confucian revival of the Southern Song contributed to hardening _____ attitudes. patriarchal
While Confucians did NOT advocate foot binding or infanticide, they DID advocate _____ separation, and chaste widows (a widow should commit suicide rather than remarry). gender
With Neo-Confucianism in the Southern Song, _____ commentary became less important. Textual
Neo-Confucianism in the Southern Song had a focus on grand philosophical questions, and a new emphasis on _____ and _____. metaphysics; cosmology
_____and Daosim [religious establishments] remained integral part of Song elite society Buddhism
Although Buddhism was rejected explicitly by these Neo-Confucianists, society reflected the continued influence of Daoism and also Buddhism at the _____ level. lower
All 3 schools of thought (Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism) remained _____ in Southern Song times. influential
The Neo-Confucian dominance during Song times was often _____-_____ by scholars. over-emphasized
1210 – Mongols from the north led by _____ _____invaded the Jurchen Jin dynasty Genghis Kahn
Genghis Kahn was a powerful and very skilled _____ commander. military
In the 12th century, the entire population estimate of the Mongolian steppe was around 1 million, but military skills made them _____. unstoppable
The Mongols were unstoppable because of the hardiness of the nomads and their horse and _____ skills bow
The Mongols did not properly occupy conquered territory – widespread. Lasting _____ resulted. devastation
Kahn had consolidated his command over all tribes, but the Mongols did very little to _____ the Chinese territory that they overran until around 1260. occupy
Kahn went on to conquer the western territories of _____ _____and eventually died in 1227. central Asia
The _____ dynasty was destroyed shortly after Kahn died, in 1234 Jin
A year after the Jin dynasty was destroyed, the attack on the _____ began. Song
1279 – Mongols completed conquest of _____ China
Mongol territory reached as far west as from Poland and east as to _____ Korea
The Mongols failed to conquer _____ and _____ Vietnam; Japan
The Mongols faced fierce resistance in _____ and did not continue south from there. Vietnam
2 _____ invasions of the Japanese islands by the Mongols were largely unsuccessful. amphibious
Genghis Kahn’s grandson Khubilai Kahn set up the semi-Chinese style _____ dynasty in Beijing. Uyan
The Mongol empire broke up into _____, Persia, Central Asia, and the Yuan dynasty in East Asia. Russia
1252 – Mongols subdued Tibet, established _____-_____relationship between an empire base in China and Tibetan Lamas. patron-priest
The implications of this patron-priest relationship between the Mongols and Tibet remain _____ until today. controversial
Khubilai Kahn ruled China in _____ style Chinese
Khubilai Kahn spent most of his time in China, wore Chinese-style clothing, and he forbade nomads to _____ their _____ on Chinese farmland. graze; herds
Khubilai Kahn used Chinese-style dynastic _____. titles
Mongol peace, around 1250 – 1350: Marco Polo visited China, Chinese _____ Christians visited Europe and had audiences with the kings of Englad and France and with the pope. Netstorian
Many _____ connections were made during the time of Mongol peace. global
Khubilai Kahn effected a division of the population into _____ hierarchy: Mongols, Western & Central Asians, Northern Chinese & Jurchen, Southern Chinese ethnic
Most high level positions in Mongol were held by _____-_____ non-Chinese
1289 – Southern Chinese prohibited from possessing _____ and _____out of fear that they would rebel against ethnic discrimination. bows and arrows
1294 – after Khubilai Kahn’s death, empire fell apart because of _____ _____. succession disputes
1320s – arrival of the _____ _____in Mongol China, which spread through the newly established Mongol trade routes to Europe. bubonic plague
Bubonic plague victim estimates are notoriously vague throughout history, but some say that up to __/__ of the population fell victim to it. 1/3
_____ _____ was founder of Ming dynasty Zhu Yuanzhang
Zhu Yuanzhang, was an orphan boy of humble background and was raised in a _____ _____ Buddhist monastery
Zhu Yuanzhang joined a _____ band rebel
Zhu Yuanzhang had great _____ talent military
1368 – Zhu Yuanzhang became the leader of his own _____. forces
Zhu Yuanzhang captured Beijing and _____ China. re-unified
Zhu called himself the founding emperor of a new dynasty, the _____. Ming
Ming means “_____” bright
Ming’s meaning was an indication of victory of the forces of _____ light
Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang was posthumously known as _____ _____ Ming Taizu
Zhu Yuanzhang was proof that origin didn’t matter too much in China, and somebody who was raised an orphan without family background could have such a stellar career to rise to the level of _____. emperor
Under the Ming dynasty, China retreated into _____ Isolationism
Ming Taizu upheld Confucian ideals of austerity and limited governments, governed by_____ _____ with a vision of empire as collection of semi-autonomous peasant villages moral example
Ming Taizu deliberately kept low taxes with payment made in _____ rather than money. time
_____ _____was severely restricted under the Ming founder. physical movement
Ming Taizu required travel permits for journeys [from home] longer than 30 miles –_____ _____ for going beyond Ming border without official permit death penalty
Despite their isolationism, the Ming dynasty was actively engaged in many foreign _____, particularly with Mongols. wars
After an emperor was captured, Ming strategies shifted from the offensive to the defensive - inspired reconstruction of _____ _____ _____ _____ in the form we know it today Great Wall of China
Kingdom of Koryo was threatened by _____ and _____military power Khitan; Jurchen
The _____ empire conquered Korean-influenced states to the north, and the kingdom of Koryo was locked into the peninsula, more or less in the shape of modern-day Korea as we know it. Khitan
The Khitan and Jurchen threat drove the _____ and _____ consolidation of Korea Cultural; political
While Chinese-style _____ structures were maintained during the Khitan and Jurchen threat, contact between Korea with China was interrupted political
Korea emphasized a more unique Korean culture and _____. values
Some Korean _____ practices were quite different from Chinese ones: marriage
Korean _____ lived with the family of their _____. men; wife
If a Korean man had multiple wives they were all _____, regular wives, not secondary wives or concubines. equal
Koryo _____ were entitled to an equal share of the family inheritance women
Koryo kingdom initially administered by _____ lords and not _____. local; centralized
The Korean aristocracy was known as _____, meaning the two orders (civil officials & military officials) Yangbang
1170 – Koryo underwent a military coup –_____ and many civilian officials killed king
The coup of 1170 in Koryo happened because the military wing had become dissatisfied with _____ _____. civilian power
Military _____ followed the 1170 military coup of Koryo dictatorship
1231 – _____ attacks on Korea began. The _____ army soon overran and laid waste to Koryo [most of the peninsula]. Mongol; Mongol
The Koryo government resisted the 1231 Mongol invasion from a small _____ base off the west coast island
1270 – The fighting in Koryo stopped when a _____-_____ government was established pro-Mongol
After the Mongol invasion, Koryo kings were allowed to continue to rule under _____ _____ until 1356. Mongol overlordship
After the Mongol invasion of Koryo, much _____ occurred at elite level intermarriage
Korean princes spent most of their time in _____ and had Mongol mothers. Beijing
Koreans adopted Mongol style names, dress, and _____ hairstyles
Since Beijing was a very-Chinese city, Korean visitors were exposed to _____-_____ and brought it to Korea Neo-Confuciansim
The Korean academy was rebuilt, the shrine to _____ restored, and the Neo-Confucius revival began as well. Confucius
As the Mongol empire began to break down, the Koryo king asserted himself and adopted pro-_____ policies Ming
The Koryo king was assassinated by a Korean _____ aristocrat
After the Koryo king was assassinated, a military leader, Yi Song-gye, founded the _____ dynasty, named after the ancient Korean kingdom. Choson
Yi Song-gye was supported by _____-_____ scholars Neo-Confucian
Yi Song-gye weakened the power of great families through _____ _____. re-assigning land
Yi Song-gye eliminated _____ military forces, and put the army under _____ command private; central
During the Choson dynasty, officials were selected through civil service examinations, but only men of _____ background [with accepted ancestry] were allowed to take the civil service examinations Yangban
During the Choson dynasty, yangban only married each other, so they became a closed off hereditary elite group of around __% of population 10
During the Choson dynasty, most commoners were _____ _____. poor peasants
During the Choson dynasty, there was a large group of hereditary _____. slaves
Some scholars say up to __% of the population was hereditary slaves during the Choson dynasty 30
By the 15th century of the Choson dynasty, women lost right to _____. inheritance
1402 – women were forbidden to _____ horses in the Choson dynasty. ride
Because of the _____ in Korea, if you couldn’t ride by horse to travel, you simply didn’t travel and had to stay at home in the house in your small family circle. terrain
During the Choson dynasty, a sole _____ wife was nominated. All others became secondary wives or concubines. legal
During the Choson dynasty, sons of secondary wives and concubines were no longer allowed to take the _____ _____ _____, so Neo-Confucianism didn’t affect only women – it also affected their sons civil service examinations
During the Choson dynasty, Confucian values were promoted by the government through academies and _____ _____. popular literature
During the Choson dynasty, Korea had become a thoroughly _____ society Confucian
Although Buddhism continued to be present in the Choson dynasty, Buddhist temples lost official support and_____-_____. tax-exemptions
1395 – In the Choson dynasty, Buddhist style _____ were prohibited in favor of Confucian style burial. funerals/cremations
In Japan, _____ power had disintegrated Centralized
In Japan, the countryside was controlled by local strongmen, protected by _____ Samurai
Early Samurai were _____ _____ to nobles household guards
The original samurai _____ quite different from what we picture today. looked
Private guards were necessary because of ____ _____ in the Japanese empire. deteriorating security
Transformation into _____ Samurai elite not complete until 16th century hereditary
Early Japanese warriors were _____ archers. Initially they were part-time warriors, part-time _____. mounted; farmers
Early Japanese warriors began to fortify their homes and aligned with ----- -----of imperial family, which were eventually demoted to nobles, which meant a lot of competition. different branches
The office of retired emperor was created in Japan, and they held a certain amount of influence, so office of retired emperor created tension with the _____ _____. reigning emperor
The office of retired emperor overall enhanced the _____ and political position of the Imperial Family. economic
1156 –In Japan, _____ conflict between reigning and retired emperor military
In the Japanese conflict between reigning and retired emperor, two noble families, the _____ and the_____, supported opposing sides. Taira; Minamoto
The Taira and Minamoto clans eventually started the _____ war: 1180 – 1185 Gempei
The Taira clan, through strategic _____, intrigue, murder, etc. gained control of the empire marriage
The main rebels’ ______ during the Gempei war had become emperor in turn grandson
During the Gempei war, many nobles, governors, and _____ _____were part of the family. district chiefs
Despite these different claims to succession, the Japanese _____ _____ was never broken because they had so many possible successors. imperial line
One son of a Minamoto family leader had been banished to _____ plain (surrounds modern day Tokyo) in the east as a child Kanto
As an adult, the son of a Minamoto family leader set up his own local warrior forces, and he gave them _____ or confirmed their _____ after he had expelled imperial officials from the area land; titles
The son of a Minamoto family leader declared _____ independent. Kanto
The son of a Minamoto family leader eventually drove Taira forces from the _____ and defeated them in the battle in the far west capital
_____ _____returned not to the capital but to Kanto plain. He only wanted control over his own network of warriors, and to be able to reward them by appointing them as estate stewards around Japan Minamoto Yoritomo
After Minamoto Yoritomo drove Taira forces from Kyoto, the emperor remained in ?Hainun?, which is modern-day Kyoto, but _____ power eroded more and more. centralized
1192 –Minamoto Yoritomo was made first _____ by the emperor Shogun
During the time of the Gempei war, _____ had little real power in those times and were usually controlled by influential families emperors
During the Kamakura Shogunate (1185 – 1333), _____ _____ and ____ _____ brought elite high culture and commoners closer Warrior tales; Buddhist preaching
_____ Buddhism was very popular in the Shogunate Zen
In the 13th century, Buddhist monasteries set up _____ baths, and Japanese practice of regular bathing established public
Japanese public baths came at a time when in _____ it was still considered unhealthy to have too much exposure to water. Europe
_____ surplus and the sale of it at new markets indicate a wealthier society that developed very fast during the first Shogunate. Agricultural
1199 – Shogun’s death. His widow and her family, the_____, take over Hojo
Some suspect that the first Shogun’s wife eventually murdered her own _____ to allow her own family to take over the Shogunate. son
It was Shogun forces who repelled the two attempted _____ invasions and who organized piratical raids into Korea. Mongol
1290 – a conflict between two eligible _____ began as both imperial family lines claimed the throne emperors
A period of rebellion followed the 1290 imperial family conflict in Japan, with _____ aligning themselves on both sides warriors
After Emperor Go-Daigo ascended to the throne, he tried to diminish the power of the _____ Shogunate
Ashikaga Takauji, who was maternally related to the Hojo family, expelled emperor _____-_____, then made himself Shogun Go-Daigo
Ashikaga Takauji established headquarters in _____. Kyoto
Ashikaga Shogunate was also called _____ (1333 – 1568). Muramashi
During the Ashikaga Shogunate, there was much intrigue as the Imperial line split between _____ and _____ dynasty northern and southern
During the Ashikaga Shogunate, alignment with either dynasty was simply for _____ for acquisition of land and power, rather than loyalty to either line raiding
The Japanese dynasties were reunified in ____, but most [real] power was in Shogun’s hands rather than that of the emperor. 1392
Most revenue of the Shogunate came from _____ and taxes trade
During the Shogunate, relatives were usually appointed as regional [provincial] governors, but there was little _____. loyalty
During the Shogunate, regional governors set themselves up as independent _____ living in castles and reigning over their local areas. warlords
1467 – war of _____ to the Shogunate. It was largely centered on Kyoto, and destroyed much of the city. No one was able to assert true power. succession
The period following the 1467 war of succession to the Shogunate is known as the ‘_____ _____ _____’ Warring States Period
During the Warring States Period, many wealthy peasants who were able to defend themselves and their land now called themselves _____ Samurai
Local rulers began to assess and reevaluate land distribution, and moved those Samurai into permanent residence at their palaces where they received a _____, while others were charged with _____ the land. salary; farming
Once local rulers moved Samurai into permanent residence at their castles, that was now the beginning of the samurai _____ that we are more familiar with. elite
Created by: silvrwood