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HST303 - Lec5

China, Japan & East Asia in World History - Lecture 5

 At the end of the age of division, the _____dynasty (581 – 618) took control of northern China. Sui
 The Sui dynasty was originally an aristocratic family - it gained the throne through strategic _____ and _____. Marriage; assassination
 When the Sui dynasty took control, Southern China was weakened from _____ a few decades earlier. Rebellions
 The Sui dynasty prepared 8 years for the invasion of the _____ territories, but the invasion force captured southern capital in less than a month. Southern
 The Sui dynasty capital was located in the same place as modern-day _____. Xi-an
 The Sui dynasty ordered the _____ to be completely destroyed. Capital
 _____ in China with Southern China was achieved in 589 Reunification
 611 – Completion of the “_____ _____” = manmade waterway linking Yangzi River to Yellow River Grand Canal
 The Grand Canal helped unify the Chinese world through making economic and cultural _____ much faster, easier, and safer. Exchange
 The Sui dynasty suffered from over-extension of _____ resources Imperial
 Simultaneous expansion to the South and North/Northwest at the same time as the invasion of the far south into modern-day _____ caused the Sui dynasty to lose considerable part of their southern force to tropical disease Vietnam
 In 612 the Sui dynasty had an unsuccessful attack on _____ Koguryo
 The Sui army was unable to obtain sufficient supplies. Many _____ and most _____ during the retreat. Starved; died
 Further invasion plans by the Sui dynasty were handicapped by _____ _____. Domestic rebellion
Common people under the Sui dynasty experienced desperation caused by _____ and _____. Taxation; draft
 The Sui dynasty fell when both _____ _____ [who led the rebellions] and commoners rebelled. Government officials
 _____ _____, Duke of Tang, cousin of the last Sui emperor rebelled after he had to save the emperor in battle, and he set up Tang dynasty [ascended to the throne]. Li Yuan
 According to the _____ _____ _____, the last Sui emperor having to be saved in battle was considered a failure and bad government, so it was legitimate for the next dynasty to take over. The emperor was killed by his own people. Mandate of Heaven
There was a long transition period from the Sui to Tang dynasty due to _____ _____ across the empire Rebel bands
 The early Tang had strong _____ and military power Political
 At the end of the Sui empire there was a formation of a _____ Chinese cultural zone. Homogenous
 During Tang times, the culturally diverse groups that had developed through the Age of Division were integrated into the Chinese mainstream, and outsider groups adopted Chinese _____ and languages. Culture
 Some of the _____ from the Tang dynasty virtually completely disappeared and eventually became extinct. Languages
 Many of the outsider groups’ _____ and _____ habits became part of Chinese culture when they were integrated into the Chinese mainstream during Tang Times. Social; cultural
The Tang Empire significantly improved the country’s _____. Infrastructure
The Tang Empire established 1,639 _____ _____ along main roads leading to the capital to improve communication - that was really a grand network for those times. Post stations
 The Tang Empire organized the _____ of editions of Confucian classics. Standardization
 During the Tang Empire, printed _____ became widely available. Calendars
 During the Tang Empire, every province was ordered to build a _____temple and hold seasonal sacrifices--which became a hallmark of traditional Chinese civilization--and in 624 to establish _____ in every province and county. Confucian; schools
In addition to state schools, there were _____ schools
 During the Tang Empire, _____ became relatively widespread. Literacy
Contemporary _____ was recited by most of the classes within the empire, and a lot of the lyrics that survived had been written by _____ rather than by noblemen. Poetry; commoners
 During the Tang Empire, literacy transcended _____ boundaries. Class
 Education was still geared towards _____ _____ examination, which became more _____ during Tang times. Civil service; egalitarian
 Prior to Tang times, a recommendation from a _____-_____ person had been necessary in addition to passing the examination. Well-respected
 Prior to Tang times, those who passed civil service exams were ranked according to their _____, so those from elite families received the best positions. Recommendations
 The system of recommendation was already dropped under Sui dynasty, but under Tang dynasty _____ examinations were introduced. Anonymous
Anonymous exams were somewhat limited because of additional required skills: Speaking ability, calligraphy, deportment, sound judgment, but also, _____ _____ - to leave a reason to reject brilliant applicants that they didn’t want. Physical appearance
 The Tang exam system had its critics and its limitations, but it promoted _____ social and political order. Meritocratic
 The Tang exam system was a powerful force for cultural _____. Homogenization
 Under the Tangs, China had become a thoroughly _____ country. Buddhist
 Once under the Sui and 4 times under the Tang - repeated imperial orders to establish networks of _____ temples across the empire. Buddhist
 The Sui and Tang orders for a network of Buddhist temples included an obligation to perform services for the _____ family. Imperial
 Under the Tang, there were always other religious traditions in China. _____ remained an individual choice. Belief
By Tang times, Buddhism had become distinctly _____. Chinese
 Permanent monasteries had been established – some had become complex tax-exempt economic institutions, which included: Estates, _____, and pawnshops. Slaves
 Chinese Buddhist abbots chose a successor and handed down monastic property to them, establishing _____ lines of succession within the temples. Patriarchal
 The patriarchal lines of succession and slight variations in _____ helped to generate Buddhist sects. Doctrine
 During Tang times, _____ boundaries really remained very fluid within China. Sectarian
 Chinese domestication of Buddhism also resulted in Creation of Chan Buddhism (_____ in Japanese and Son in Korean). Zen
 The main idea of Chan Buddhism was to awaken _____ around you, rather than escape from the world to nirvana. Reality
 Chan Buddhism had a focus on _____, which is what Chan essentially means. Meditation
 Chan Buddhists argued that it was useless to study scriptures since ultimate _____ cannot be put into words. Truth
Despite the _____ of Buddhism, many important connections to India and the Indian origin of Buddhism remained. Localization
 _____ Buddhism arrived in China during the Tang era. Tantric
 In the early 7th century, the various Tibetan tribes unified as the creation of the Tibetan empire under king _____ _____. Songtsen Gampo
 The creation of the Tibetan empire was the emergence of distinct Tibetan _____. Civilization
 The new Tibetan empire adopted the _____ writing system using Sanskrit. Indian
 For the Tibetan emperor, _____ were given from both China and Nepal. Brides
The Tibetan Empire became a great rival for the _____ empire as it conquered the _____ dominated areas to the west. Tang; Tang
 _____ allies started to play a role in Central and East Asian warfare, and with them came the arrival of Islam in central Asia. Arab
 There is a lot of conflict between _____ in western China and the majority population. Muslims
 After 842, the Tibetan empire began to break up due to internal disputes. This power vacuum was filled by a new _____ empire. Turkic
 The Tang dynasty was weakened through rebellion and _____ within the empire. Intrigue
 Most of the Tang military was under control of _____ frontier commands, which eventually led to the end of Tang dynasty in 907. Independent
 With the fall of the Tang dynasty came much _____ and slaughter of Chinese people by non-Chinese forces on both rebel and loyalist sides. Looting
 With the fall of the Tang dynasty, for the first time China was surrounded by organized, _____ threatening states. Militarily
 During the downfall of the Tang dynasty, many _____ were forming and changing. Realms
 The Korean kingdoms experienced continued _____ influence. Chinese
 Korean Buddhist monks went to China to study and brought with them upon return influences such as clothing and the Tang _____. Calendar
 Early 7th century - all three kingdoms sent envoys requesting _____military assistance against the other two. Chinese
 The Tang empire had long-standing problems with the kingdom of _____, and their inability to defeat them by invasion inspired them to form an alliance with kingdom of Silla. Koguryo
 660 – Capital of kingdom of _____ was captured by combined Tang and Sillan forces. Paekche
 _____became involved on behalf of Paekche prince at their court by proclaiming him as the new king. They launched an expedition to restore him to his kingdom. Japanese
 In a great battle in 663, Tang and Sillan navies sank around __ Japanese warships, ending Japanese influence for nearly a millennium. 400
 _____ had disintegrated internally and was conquered by Tang-Sillan alliance in 668. Koguryo
 The Tang-Sillan alliance led to _____ of Korean peninsula under kingdom of Silla. Unification
 Following the Tang-Sillan alliance, Tang relocated many [as much as 5% of] Koguryo inhabitants to _____ populated regions of China. Sparsely
 A notable number of people from Koguryo and Paekche and their descendants successfully advanced in the Tang _____. military
 The Tang empire wanted to integrate Korean peninsula into the empire, but the _____ force crumbled – it couldn’t maintain control over the resistance. Occupation
 By 676 – Silla expelled Tang forces for the first time and for the first time the peninsula was unified under _____ rule. Native
 Sillan society was based on a hierarchical system of ‘_____-_____’, kolp’um. Bone-rank
 In Sillan society there were numerous important aristocratic families who made up a _____ of nobles which appointed the ruler. Council
In Sillan society, a person’s _____-_____ determined highest rank a person could achieve. Bone-rank
 In Sillan society, a person’s bone-rank determined the _____ that had to be worn. Clothing
 In Sillan society, a person’s bone-rank determined maximum size of _____ that could be owned. House
788 – first Chinese style civil service _____ were held, but the role remained very limited in Silla’s warrior culture. Examinations
 Modern Korean language is most likely derived from _____, which gradually had become the shared language after the unification of the peninsula. Sillan
 The Sillan state weakened from 800 onward: 901 to 935 – briefly divided into three old kingdoms once again after numerous ______. Revolts
In 935 the three Sillan state kingdoms reunified as the kingdom of _____, an abbreviation of Koguryo. Koryo
 The name Koryo is also the origin of the English word “_____”, which is still used. Korean
 When the expansion of the Sui dynasty threatened the Korean peninsula, _____ court initialized direct contact with Sui and Tang China at the beginning of the 7th century. Yamamoto
 Over the years, Yamamoto court dispatched __ embassies to China. 5
The Yamamoto court laid claim to _____ or _____ imperial status. Equal; superior
 An address of the 607 Yamamoto embassy to the Sui emperor read: “From the Sun of Heaven in the place where the sun _____, to the Sun of Heaven in the place where the sun _____” clearly indicating an equality. Rises; sets
 To consolidate their power, the Japanese court pushed for _____ of the empire, mainly driven by fear of invasion from Tang China. Centralization
 After the _____ of members of the powerful Soga family, centralization came on the way. Assassination
 During their involvement in Tang/Sillan – Paekche war, Imperial Japan lost about 400 boats & __ men. 10,000
 After the Tang/Sillan – Paekche war, Imperial Japan adopted a policy of _____. Isolation
 Imperial Japan set up an office on _____ to regulate international contact, and for the first time, to completely close off Japanese borders. Kyushu
 Despite isolationism, many of the policies and administrative structures that were set up in Japan were inspired by _____ style imperial institutions. Chinese
 Imperial Japan adopted the _____ title. Emperor
 Imperial Japan introduced Chinese style _____ codes. Legal
Imperial Japan set up a state council with 8 _____ and 46 _____ [very similar to those in China]. A hierarchy of provinces, districts, and villages was also established throughout the empire. Ministries; bureaus
 670 –_____ registration began for the purposes of taxation, military conscription, and farmland allocation [very similar to what was happening in China]. Household
 After the 670 household registration, a _____ was supposed to be held every 6 years. Census
 Imperial Japan’s new Capital city of _____ was built 708 – 712. Nara
 In Imperial Japan an academy for study of Confucian classics, _____, law, and mathematics was established. Calligraphy
 In Imperial Japan, _____ achievements did not imply access to government positions. Academic
 In Imperial Japan there was very little chance of _____ through education and merit as there had been in China. Advancement
 Provincial schools in Imperial Japan struggled to find instructors, and teaching positions at the academy had become largely _____. Hereditary
 When one academy burned down in the 12th century in Imperial Japan, it was not _____. Reopened.
 Eventually the practice of _____ became sponsored by the state in Imperial Japan. Buddhism
 In 752 a huge, bronze _____ was built in Nara. It was nearly 64 feet high. Buddha
 A few decades after the construction of a 64-foot-high Buddha, a monk brought _____ Buddhism, Shingon in Japanese, to Japan. Tantric
 794 – Japan’s capital moved to Heinan, modern day _____. Kyoto
 By 10th century, Japanese centralized imperial government was severely weakened (happened slowly), and the new class of provincial warriors, the _____, was rising. Samurai
 After the Tang threat diminished, Japan’s _____ army and farmland allocation had been allowed to lapse. Conscript
 After the Tang threat diminished, eventually the Japanese central government stopped _____ the countryside altogether and left it to local warriors. Policing
 As a result of the Japanese central government’s weakened state, powerful nobles set up private _____, which were often exempt from taxation and other government excise. They were the ones who would form the new bases of power in Japan. Estates
Created by: silvrwood