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Heme 2

Final Review

normal range for K+ 3.8-4.5 meq/L
normal range for Na+ 135-148 meq/L
normal range for Cl 98-108 meq/l
normal range for BUN 8-18mg/dl
normal range for creatinine 0.7-1.3 for men 0.6- 1.1 for women
normal range for bicarb ( total CO2) 22-28 meq/l
normal range for total cholesterol less than 200mg/dl
normal range for triglycerides 10-190 mg/dl
panel 7 consists of K+, Na+, Cl, glucose, CO2, BUN, creatinine
monitors kidney function BUN and cratinine
major carbohydrate in blood and major source of energy glucose
most common disorder of glucose metabolism diabetes mellitus
elevated blood glucose hyperglycemia
low blood glucose hypoglycemia
produced by the beta cells in the pancrease insulin
first stage of cellular respiration glycolysis
extra glucose is converted into glycogen
glycogen is stored in the liver
fasting blood glucose, pt should be NPO for 8 hours or longer
GGT glucose tolerance test
two hour post prandial glucose is done 2 hours after eating
GGT is done by taking a fasting BG level, giving pt oral glucose solution to drink, drawing blood samples at 1,2 and 3 hours after.
GTT is most commonly done in pregnant women to detect gestational diabetes
most reliable method for diagnosing diabetes HbgA1C
HbgA1C represents the average glucoses levels over 8-12 weeks
how often should an insulin dependent diabetic check his blood sugar each day 4 times
constant hunger, blurred vision, increased thirst,increased urination and initial weight loss are symptoms of diabetes
normal range for fasting glucose 70-120mg/dl
normal range for LDL less than 100mg/dl
normal range for HDL 40-60mg/dl
hyponatremia low sodium
hypernatremia high sodium
hypokalemia low potassium
hyperkalemia high potassium
hypocalcemia low calcium
hypercalcemia high calcium
coagulation means clotting
most common coagulation study done PT
normal INR 0.8-1.1
most common anticoagulant prescribed coumadin
if the INR is too high what must be done decrease the dose of coumadin to prevent bleeding
normal range for PT 11-16sec
substance that inhibits blood clotting anticoagulant
ESR stands for erythrocyte sedimentation rate
ESR is done to detect inflammation
ESR is also known as a sed rate
normal ESR for an adult male 0-10mm/hr
normal ESR for a woman over 50 0-30mm/hr
an elevated sed rate will lead the doctor to order further testing
how long does it take a manual sed rate to result one hour
mononucleosis is caused by EBV
EBV stands for Epstein Barr Virus
mono is primarily transmitted through saliva
mono is also known as the kissing disease
common signs and symptoms of mono may include fever, sore throat, body aches, headaches, extreme fatigue
clinical findings of mono may include elevated liver enzymes, enlarged spleen and/or enlarged liver
symptoms of mono may last up to six months
two options for testing for mono include serum blood sample sent to the lab, rapid mono test done in the office
elevated IgG indicates past exposure/infection
elevated IgM indicates current infection
rapid mono test results in five minutes
the four blood types detected in humans A,B,AB,O
has the A antigen on the RBC with the B antibody floating in the plasma type A
has the B antigen on the RBC with the A antibody floating in the plasma type B
has both A and B antigens on the RBC with nothing floating in the plasma type AB
has neither A or B antigens on the RBC but has both A and B antibodies floating in the plasma type O
universal donor O-
universal recipient AB+
Rh factor got its name from the Rhesus monkey
if the Rh antigen is present you are Rh+
if you do not have the Rh antigen you are Rh-
If a pregnant woman is Rh- what injection will she get during her pregnancy rhogam
thyroid panel T3;T4;TSH
cardiac profile LDH;CPK;AST;CKMB;Troponin
lipid panel total cholesterol; LDL;HDL;triglycerides
hepatic(liver) profile ALT;AST;LDH;GGT;ALP; total protein; total and direct bilirubin
BMP;panel 7; renal profile Na; K; Cl; CO2; glucose; BUN; creatinine
evaluates kidney function BUN; Creatinine
evaluates pancreas amylase and lipase
the clumping together of cells agglutination
protein found on RBC antigen
CBC; sed rate(ESR); HgbA1C lavender
PT/PTT/INR light blue
STAT chemistries mint green
ammonia; pH; O2 level; carboxyhemoglobin dark green
blood cultures yellow
drug levels; blood bank tests(type & screen; type & match; blood type) red
routine chemistries: BMP; hepatic panel; thyroid panel; hepatitis panel; thyroid panel; cardiac panel; lipid panel; amylase; lipase red speckled or gold
glucose studies; lactic acid gray
cbc and blood bank testing pink
glucose studies fasting blood glucose(FBG); post prandial blood glucose; glucose tolerance test(GTT)
lavender EDTA: anticoagulant
light blue Sodium citrate: anticoagulant
yellow(blood cultures) SPS(sodium polyanethol sulfonate)
mint green lithium heparin: anticoagulant
dark green sodium heparin: anticoagulant
red silicone coated(glass); silicone coated /clot activator(plastic)
red speckled/gold serum separator gel and clot activator
gray potassium oxylate(anticoagulant) and sodium fluoride(antiglycolitic)
pink K2EDTA: anticoagulant
if using a butterfly needle to draw a PT/PTT, you must first draw and discard a waste tube
prothrombin is produced by the liver
what test is used to regulate Coumadin therapy PT/INR
what test is used to regulate Heparin therapy PTT
abnormal PT/PTT may indicate liver disease; clotting factor deficiencies
ADA stands for Americans with Disabilities Act
LEP stands for limited English proficiency
native language of the deaf in the US ASA; American sign language
this term incorporates ethnicity,race and religious beliefs cultural diversity
culture that takes offense to be touched by the opposite sex Middle Eastern
culture that may consider eye contact to be offensive Asian
culture that considers direct eye contact a sign of respect Western civilization and Latin cultures
Created by: clarevoyant1019



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