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Modern East Asia 3

Modern East Asia Ch 3: The Seventeenth Century

QuestionAnswer
When did Tokugawa Ieyasu take the title of shogun? 1603
What empire arose north of Chosŏn, northeast of the Ming, in 1633? Manchu Qing
What territory did the Manchu Qing empire include? The cultural worlds of China, Mongolia, eastern Central Asia, and Tibet, as well as their own homeland, now usually known in English as Manchuria
How long did the Manchu Qing empire endure? Almost 3 centuries
Which inventor of calculus was deeply impressed by Chinese culture, as reported by the seventeenth-century Jesuits? Leibniz
In the 17th century, none foresaw Europe’s rise to world-dominating technological & scientific eminence. Jesuits who visited China & Japan then commented on the sophistication & superlative workmanship of East Asian _____ in comparison to their own. Manufactures
When they reached the Ming, Chosŏn, and Tokugawa realms, Europeans could not act in a high-handed fashion. In East Asia, as in South Asia and the eastern Mediterranean, they faced ____-____states, with ____ armies. Well-organized; powerful
Chinese and Japanese craftsmen quickly learned to make European-style firearms, eliminating any military advantage the Spanish and Portuguese might have enjoyed, except in _____ and _____. Shipbuilding; navigation
In the 17th century, Europeans in East Asia presented themselves as bearers of Christianity’s unique truth, but they could not honestly say that their homelands were _____ or _____ superior to China, Korea, or Japan. Technologically; economically
The Jesuits who led the Catholic missions in East Asia expressed shocked admiration for the _____, culturally _____, and politically _____-_____ states and societies they found there. Orderly; sophisticated; well-organized
The Ming state tottered and fell in the middle of the __ century. 17th
In one version of history, the _____ people, sensing Heaven’s displeasure through maladministration & high taxation, organized themselves against the Ming dynasty & brought it down. Ordinary
At the end of the Ming dynasty, the Ministry of Revenue could not collect enough taxes to pay the _____ & _____, the palace _____ did wield great power, & the central government was plagued with _____, but these conditions had existed before. Officials; soldiers; eunuchs; factionalism
Critically, the Ming state faced two large, roving _____armies in the west & northwest, which it could not defeat, & an external challenger arose outside the Great Wall in the northeast, among later to be known as _____. Rebel; Manchus
In agriculturally and politically marginal Shaanxi province, in the northwest corner of Ming territory, bounded by the Mongol and Tibetan frontiers, the defense forces had been _____ for as long as two years in the early 1630s. Unpaid
Demobilized _____ and unemployed _____ transportation workers with some army training and weapons formed gangs to survive the hard times. Soldiers; military
After 1638, the ranks of _____ _____ (a junior officer) included not only down-and-out ex-soldiers but also local gentry, even provincial examination graduates, and his army began to resemble a dynasty-overturning rebellion. Li Zicheng
Another young man from northern Shaanxi, _____ _____, also raised an army and battled the Ming for years, finally settling in Sichuan. Zhang Xianzhong
Both Zhang Xianzhong and Li Zicheng declared themselves to be the rulers of new dynasties, and Li marched on _____ in the spring of 1644. Beijing
The emperor’s officials advised him to place his resources toward the _____, rather than defending against the advancing army of _____ _____. Manchus; Li Zicheng
The Ming’s most effective metropolitan forces faced the Manchus at Shanhaiguan, where the _____ _____ meets the sea east of Beijing. Great Wall
Li’s rebels took the capital in a few _____ of furious fighting. Days
As Li's rebels entered the Forbidden City, the last Ming emperor _____ himself on the manmade hill outside the palace’s north gate. Hanged
In 1596, between the two Hideyoshi invasions, the Chosŏn court sent an emissary, Sin Chung-il, to negotiate with the _____ _____, a group of agricultural and pastoral forest-dwellers who lived just across the Yalu (Amnok in Korean) frontier. Jianzhou Jurchens
En route to negotiate, Sin traveled through the prosperous villages to the stockade at Fe Ala (“Old Hill”), where he met two brothers, ______ and _____, lords of the Jianzhou Jurchens. Nurgaci; Surgaci
Nurgaci and Surgaci ruled over a mixed population that included Chinese, Koreans, and _____ as well as Jurchens and people of similar culture from elsewhere in the region. Mongols
Especially skilled in _____ _____ and _____ _____, the Jurchens possessed both superior mounts and alarming accuracy in shooting from horseback with their short, powerful compound bows. Horse breeding; cavalry tactics
In his communications with his superiors in Seoul, Ambassador Sin described the Jurchens as well organized for _____ production and for _____. Economic; war
Sin warned that the Jurchens posed a considerable danger, controlling much of the territory between the _____ frontier and the _____ frontier. Ming; Chosŏn
In part to allay Korean suspicions and to secure his southeastern frontier, Nurgaci gave Sin a letter for the Chosŏn court, suggesting a Jurchen–Chosŏn alliance against the _____. Ming
After Sin returned to Seoul, bearing Nurgaci’s letter & his notes on Nurgaci’s personality, forces, & resources, the Chosŏn court rejected the proposed alliance, broke off trade relations with the Jianzhou Jurchens, & shut down its ____ ____ ____. Frontier trading posts
When the Chosŏn court rejected the proposed alliance, Nurgaci continued his gradual rise to power, allying himself with some leaders and conquering others, becoming the first among equals and creating a _____ of kinsmen and allies. Council
Nurgaci rid himself of his _____ _____’s competitive presence by having him killed in 1611. Younger brother
In 1616 Nurgaci declared himself _____, a Central Asian title associated with ownership of the land; bestowal of rich gifts, women, and slaves upon highranking followers; and conquest. Khan
Using both Chinese & Inner Asian languages & technologies of war, organization, & diplomacy, Nurgaci created a formidable military, centered on lightly armored cavalry skilled in mounted archery, as well as the beginnings of a civilian _____. Bureaucracy
Nurgaci and his allies took the Ming city of Shenyang, the center of Liaodong province, in 1621 and made it their own _____, renaming it Mukden. Capital
Knowing the usefulness of _____ _____ and _____, Nurgaci captured, bought, or won the loyalty of men literate in the Chinese and Mongolian scripts. Written communication; recordkeeping
Around 1599, Nurgaci ordered his Mongolian scribes to develop a script to represent spoken Jurchen, later called _____. Manchu
Constructing a collective identity the Jurchen involved, among many elements, a mythology of _____ _____ as well as geographical origin and language. Common descent
Food, clothing, _____, language, and culture distinguished the Jurchens from other groups in the region. Hairstyle
One of Nurgaci’s crucial innovations lay in his careful organization of the Jurchen _____ _____ and those of their allies and defeated enemies. Military forces
Early in the 17th century, Nurgaci began to arrange the Jurchen lineages in “_____,” military units identified by colored flags. Banners
Banners included not only the fighting men themselves but also their _____, _____, and _____. Families; servants; slaves
Nurgaci made banner membership _____ and installed his closest kinsmen and allies as banner leaders. Hereditary
Th e “banner system” reinforced loyalty to the leader, military success, and _____ _____. Social stability
The number and composition of the banners changed, but Chinese sources usually refer to the _____ Manchu Banners as the heart of the conquering army from the northeast. Eight
The Jurchens enrolled Mongols and Chinese in banners as well, and scholars are still arguing over the extent to which “banner” equaled “_____ _____” in the 17th century. Ethnic identity
Historian Mark Elliott noted: banner orgs resembled a cross between the _____ _____, Civil Service, & Veterans Administration, thickly overlaid with a combo of oldboy networks, political preferences, & partially articulated Affirmative Action policies. Marine Corps
However we interpret their ethnic membership, the banners made up the _____ of the Manchu military machine, which Nurgaci created and his descendants led against Chosŏn and then against the Ming, with devastating results. Core
A society which chooses new leaders by legally mandated elections is a _____. Democracy
Societies which rely upon inheritance of leadership within families are _____ or _____. Monarchies; dynasties
Making the old ruler’s first son the new ruler is called _____ and has the advantage of predictability. Primogeniture
Th e Chosŏn kings practiced primogeniture, while the _____ shoguns, their daimyō and samurai chose inheritance by one male descendant to stabilize their rule and eliminate competition among brothers. Tokugawa
Inner Asian rulers, including the Jurchens, did not automatically select their first sons as their successors, & _____ warfare, assassinations, & plots among uncles & brothers characterized Inner Asian courts as far away as the Mughals & Ottomans. Fratricidal
When Nurgaci died at the age of 67 in 1626, from wounds suffered in battle against the Ming, his __th son Hongtaiji emerged victorious from the fraternal struggle that determined succession to power. 8
Hongtaiji banned the derogatory word “Jurchen” from his realm, mandating a new name to denote his army and people - _____, or _____. Manchu; Manju
In 1637, Hongtaiji ended his realm’s _____ status under the Ming, embodied in the dynastic name Latter Jin, which Nurgaci had inherited from earlier Jurchen kingdoms. Tributary
Hongtaiji named his state _____ _____, including under its sway not only the newly named Manchus but also Koreans, Chinese, Mongols, and others. Great Qing
A rival to the Great Ming to his southwest, the new ruler of the Great Qing called himself _____. Emperor
The Chosŏn court had refused to pay tribute to Hongtaiji in 1632 and then rejected an emissary’s demands for assistance against the _____ in 1636, so Hongtaiji himself led a huge army to subjugate the feisty peninsula a second time. Ming
Hongtaiji's powerful banner forces captured King Injo and his whole family in a brief campaign, forcing Chosŏn into a much more _____ and permanent _____ status. Humiliating; subordinate
Between 1637 and his death in 1643, Hongtaiji improved the banner organization, adding more _____ banners to his vanguard, and continued Nurgaci’s use of Chinese _____ from Liaodong, although he mistrusted them. Mongol; bureaucrats
Hongtaiji' obtained the technology to manufacture large _____ pieces, and these _____ enabled the Manchu military to take the heavily fortified cities that constituted the Ming empire’s main line of defense. Artillery; cannons
Created by: silvrwood