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Modern East Asia 2-a

Modern East Asia: Chapter 2 - CHINESE SOCIETY AND CULTURE IN THE LATE MING

QuestionAnswer
_____ _____, a successful general whose troops drove the Mongols northward in the mid-fourteenth century, founded the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and became its first emperor. Zhu Yuanzhang
What was the title of the first emperor of the Ming dynasty? Huangdi, Supreme Divine Ruler
The Ming dynasty was considerably more _____ and _____ than its European contemporaries or Chinese predecessors. Centralized; autocratic
Ming rulers, officials, and elites educated themselves and their families in a textual tradition they traced back to _____, a sagely teacher of ancient times. Confucius
Literate Chinese were encouraged to live harmoniously by knowing and acting out their proper roles in society, by accepting the power of authorities: _____, _____, _____, and _____ _____. Rulers; fathers; husbands; older brothers
Although the classical texts are indeed very ancient, Ming elites interpreted them using eleventh- and twelfth-century commentaries and educational methods called _____-_____ in English. Neo-Confucian
Still emphasizing the ancient rituals, the Neo-Confucians advocated _____-_____ study as the Way (c. Dao) to activate the _____ _____ dormant in all human beings. Self-disciplined; inner virtues
One of the ancient texts most often cited by Neo-Confucians was called the _____ or _____ _____. Daxue; Greater Learning
Individuals differ in their capacity for letting their innate virtue shine into the world—depending on the clarity or murkiness of their natural _____ and _____ endowment. Physical; psychological
Neo-Confucians relied on both official (_____) and unofficial (_____) institutions to control those who could not control themselves. State; social
Neo-Confucians concluded that the entire cosmos, energized by the interaction of _____ and _____, followed principle—the patterns of nature and things and the core object of study in the Daxue. Yin; yang
Neo-Confucians believed that principle had no substance in itself—only pure pattern—and had to be worked out in _____ _____; what one scholar has called _____ stuff. Material existence;psychophysical
East Asian scholars debated whether _____ or _____ _____ should be considered primary, and how these abstract concepts could help us construct ideals for a good society and virtuous individuals. Principle;material existence
What were the five hierarchical relationships that, properly performed by everyone, would guarantee a stable social order? Father–son; king–minister; husband–wife; older brother–younger brother; friend–friend
Ming rulers made the hierarchical law apply even to the highest members of the elite, but laws could never be enough, so the Ming government encouraged Neo-Confucianism’s _____ claims. Idealistic
Knowing the limits of their idealistic vision in real political practice, Ming rulers created a complex law code and enforced it through a large _____. Bureaucracy
_____ constituted the building blocks of the society over which the Ming state ruled. Families
The idealized family consisted of many _____ living in _____ harmony in a single compound, welded together by _____ bonds to one another, ritual devotion to their common _____, and mutual interests. Generations; hierarchical; emotional; ancestors
The _____ (sometimes called a _____) formed the most basic human association, and it bore the common surname that gave individual males their fundamental social identity. Patrilineage; clan
Through _____ & _____ texts & _____ _____ reinforced by rituals & punishments, young men learned that obedience to authority was prized & that their personal successes & failures could determine the collective destinies of their families. Philosophical; religious; proverbial knowledge
Families did not encourage _____, pressuring young men rather to act for the benefit of all. Individualism
Ming dynasty law provided for harsh punishment of the _____ of some convicted criminals, whether they had any knowledge of or role in the crime or not. Relatives
Love for parents and grandparents, and obedience to their wishes and instructions, came to be enshrined and praised as _____ _____, one of humankind’s highest virtues. Filial piety
The school of Confucianism associated with _____ _____ (1472–1529) broke from conventional Neo-Confucianism. He realized that we inherently possess the crucial knowledge for the difference between good and evil. Wang Yangming
Some of Wang Yangming's more extreme followers went so far as to argue that human beings should follow all of their “_____ _____” in order to perfect themselves, even if they violated conventional Confucian moral norms. Natural instincts
Wang Yangming’s radical critique of conventional thought teaches us that Chinese culture was not _____. Homogeneous
The kinsmen of the past remained as necessary and vital members of the family, and they had to be _____ regularly, at least once a year. Honored
_____ _____, inscribed with ancestor names, rested on a family altar, placed in the position of honor in the house’s main room. Memorial tablets
Ancestors received offerings of _____, _____, and _____ to keep them well disposed toward the living. Incense; food; drink
_____ _____ determined how elaborate and frequent ancestor rituals could be. Social class
People announced important _____ events to their late parents, grandparents, and more distant ancestors. Family
_____ _____ was the ritualistic practice of honoring past family members through alters with offerings and inclusion in announcements. Ancestor veneration
Neglecting ancestor veneration created “_____ _____,” unfed ancestors whose anger and envy could severely damage the living. Hungry ghosts
_____ realities and the rules of _____ prevented most people from creating ideal “big families.” Economic; inheritance
With life expectancy very low (around __ years in the late Ming), many people died before the births of their grandchildren. 30
_____ _____ was the rule that all Chinese had to divide their wealth equally among sons upon the death of the patriarch, who was by law the household head. Partible inheritance
Partible inheritance dated at least from the _____ _____ bce. First millennium
_____, inheritance by the eldest son, was preferred in Chosŏn Korea and among the elite of Tokugawa Japan. Primogeniture
The division of family wealth in every generation caused both landholdings and commercial wealth to fragment, so some sons had to leave home in search of land to farm or become _____ of their better-off neighbors or relatives. Tenants
During the past thousand years, some families did manage to maintain elite status from generation to generation by _____ their lineages. Incorporating
Incorporating their lineage entailed assigning landed property or commercial investments to the _____ itself rather than any individual, thus exempting some of their wealth from partible inheritance rules. Surname
Young kinsmen could be educated and prepared for success in _____ schools. Lineage
As both a symbol and a tool of their long-term continuity, some families maintained written _____, which stipulated the conditions of collective property, common rituals, and ideological commitment to their patrilineage. Genealogies
In Ming political theory, individuals and families could be classified by profession, according to an _____ _____. Ancient hierarchy
Chosen to be the _____ _____ _____ and possessing _____ _____ to rule and regulate the cosmos, the emperor, his ancestors, and his successors for “10,000 years” constituted a unique lineage in the Ming state. Son of Heaven; Heaven’s Mandate
The emperor and his family, virtually out of reach of the law, governed “_____ _____ _____”. All Under Heaven
The officials who governed in the emperor’s name and all those who studied and cultivated themselves to serve in office made up the highest class of society, the _____-_____. Scholar-officials
Military officers, who had to pass exams in the _____ _____ and _____, composed a secondary hierarchy within the Ming state. Martial arts; strategy
In the Ming state, _____, and after them the _____, who created useful materials and objects, followed military officers in the hierarchy. Farmers, artisans
_____, a class judged as parasites by the ancient texts, and often called the “secondary occupation,” were theoretically at the bottom of ordinary society in the Ming hierarchy. Merchants
The Classics contrasted “_____,” a negative term in ancient Chinese, to “virtue”. Profit
The conventional hierarchy of statuses often conflicted with reality because _____ _____ might educate their sons for success in the official examinations. Wealthy merchants
Apart from holding office or teaching, the most respectable occupation for scholar-officials was _____ because then a family could contribute to society’s welfare, take rent from tenants, and not sully its hands with commerce. Landholding
Below the merchants, at the very bottom of society, lay small groups of despised people whose occupations (_____, for example) or way of life (such as dwelling permanently on _____) made them unfit for inclusion in respectable society. Leatherworking; boats
At times in Ming history, the lowest-status group included _____ _____, prostitutes, and _____. Buddhist monks; actors
An ancient tradition of Chinese families taking in wives for their sons and marrying their daughters out into other families is called _____. Patrilocality
Patrilocality rendered female children less important to their _____ families than their brothers. Natal
Exceptions to patrilocality existed, including _____ _____ _____ _____, who would marry a son after both children passed puberty, or bringing a son-in-law into the family to marry a daughter. Adopting an infant girl
Wanting the best for them, but that usually consisted of finding them the best possible husbands and (even more important) _____-_____-_____. Mothers-in-law
Chinese girls technically kept their natal surnames when they were married out, but most females were known not by surname or personal name but rather by their _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Relationship to their husbands’ families
From the twelfth century on, Chinese families began to express their quality and their self-discipline by causing their daughters _____ _____. Excruciating pain
The _____ of young girls’ _____ to make them attractively narrow, originally a practice of imperial court dancers, gradually spread to all classes of society. Binding; feet
By the late Ming period, many Chinese girls were walking on the tops of their bent-under toes, balancing on their _____ with only their _____ _____ extended forward, their arches bowed high and their feet no more than _____ _____ _____ long. Heels; big toes; a few inches
Foot binding made a woman more attractive and restricted her movement throughout her life, and it marked her as part of a society that understood _____ and _____. Propriety; discipline
Foot binding was never known or endorsed by _____, who advocated complete preservation of the body received from parents. Confucius
Ritual behavior indicated the termination of a woman's association with her natal family—water was _____ and doors _____ behind her. Spilled; slammed
By the late Ming, married women and all their possessions belonged by law to their _____ _____. Husbands’ families
Because of the detachment, Chinese woman learned to be _____-______ though appearing to lean on her father, her husband, and her son. Self-sufficient
Once married, women’s purpose in their husbands’ families lay in producing _____ _____, and in playing their appropriate roles in relationships and rituals. Male heirs
Young mothers found that their main allies were their _____, full members of their fathers’ lineages from birth and thus able to protect their mothers because Confucian tradition defined filial piety as the highest virtue for all humankind. Sons
Widows who brought honor to their husbands’ lineages by _____ _____ _____ received prestige. Refusing to remarry
Chinese women in the Ming bore the triple burden of _____, _____, and _____. Patriarchy; patriliny; patrilocality
Women from the lower classes of society were praised for their willingness to _____ _____ rather than violate any social prohibitions. Commit suicide
The _____ _____ is the birthplace with its associated speech, local customs, foodways, scenery, temples, climate, and ecosystem. Native place
The native place ecosystem constituted a crucial facet of a person’s _____. Individuality
_____ found it useful to create hometown societies in places where they stayed regularly. Merchants
By the late Ming, some regional associations, such as the _____ _____ _____ _____ or the _____-_____ had begun to play transregional roles in transferring funds and/or offering credit to traveling merchants. Bankers of Shanxi province; money-shops
After the Ming state ceased _____ _____ _____ in the fifteenth century, many of the regional associations issued instruments of credit as a convenience to hometown merchants. Printing paper money
Chinese elites had created and propagated a culture-wide theory of food, based on the hot/cold distinction between yang and yin, five flavors (_____, _____, _____, _____, _____), and an elaborate array of criteria for excellence. Salty; sour; sweet; bitter; spicy-peppery
Because of hometown pride, Shanxi merchants, for example, thought so highly of their local _____ that they traveled with personal supplies of it rather than tolerate another place’s inferior sourness. Vinegar
Social connections in which people developed ties that resembled family are called _____ _____. Fictive kinship
_____, also an ancient textual tradition, provided a more personal, less socially regulated vision of the good life. Daoism
Daoist books and commentaries advocated freedom, passivity, and conformity to the laws of _____ rather than the artificial norms of society. Nature
Daoism also developed a _____, _____ side, inhabited by magicians, mountain-dwelling hermits, and priests who could purify a polluted home or drive malevolent demons from their victims’ bodies. Mystical; esoteric
The most successful of immigrant religions, _____, arrived from India, beginning in the late first century ce. Buddhism
By the __ century, Buddhist institutions and values permeated religious and intellectual life. 7th
Buddhist monasteries inhabited by _____ _____ were a challenge to Confucian filial piety, which demanded male off spring of every male Chinese. Celibate monks
_____ _____ blurred the textual distinctions among Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism. Popular religion
Holidays that punctuated the hard work of the ____ ____: Duanwu festival with dragon boat races; mid-autumn festival on which people ate round sweet moon cakes; & the 15-day New Year- spring festival, the only extended rest from ordinary labors. Agricultural cycle
During the Ming, religious leaders created the _____ _____ _____, which placed statues of the Buddha Sakyamuni, the legendary Daoist sage Laozi, and the Great Teacher Confucius on the same temple altar. Three Teachings tradition
The Ming rulers’ Neo-Confucian autocracy did not tolerate any alternatives to its own orthodox hierarchy, many of which arose in the realm of religion, for charismatic religious leaders claimed ____ ____ to construct authority among their followers. Divine guidance
_____ religion flowered in periods of social chaos, central government weakness, and economic downturn. Sectarian
When conditions deteriorated, people turned to _____ expectations. Messianic
Rebels against the Ming in the 1630s and 1640s called upon _____ _____ _____ to build support. Popular religious traditions
Scholars and officials who found the politics of the court frustrating or even immoral returned home—many of them to the Lower Yangzi region—and founded _____ where like-minded men could debate the burning issues of the day. Academies
Scholars and officials who found the politics of the court frustrating complained about the influence of _____ and other “illegitimate” elements at the emperor’s court. Eunuchs
_____ _____ rebuked the Jiajing Emperor for being selfish and immoderate, unwise and suspicious. Hai Rui
By rebuking several high-ranking officials and trying to _____ _____ and _____ in his district, Hai Rui made himself popular with the general public. Redistribute wealth; power
The government that ruled the Ming state claimed to take its structure from _____. The emperor sat at the center not merely of the state but of the entire _____. Antiquity; cosmos
The emperor's palace lay on the _____-_____ axis of balance in the world, and his _____-facing gaze took in all of reality. North–south; southward
The emperor's rituals kept _____ and _____ in equilibrium and harmony, while his sagacious decisions maintained the _____ _____ in good order. Heaven; Earth; human realm
Among his most important responsibilities, the emperor selected moral, self-disciplined, well-educated men to perform the daily work of _____. Government
_____ distinguished Ming China from most of its contemporary states in Eurasia (including Chosŏn Korea and Tokugawa Japan). Meritocracy
Officials chosen because of noble birth is called _____. Aristocracy
The Confucian texts, with their core of _____ _____, _____ _____, and _____ _____ to kings and ministers, became the core curriculum for meritocracy examinations. Moral philosophy; ritual rectitude; ancient advice
Compared to administrative procedures, laws, and tax codes, a Confucian education theoretically guaranteed the _____ of the men governing the realm. Character
Most _____ _____ could not afford to support non-working sons through the many years required to prepare for the exams, so the sons of wealthy families usually dominated the lists of successful candidates for official positions. Poor families
Whenever Chinese people want to praise a government official as honest and “on our side,” they call him “_____ _____ _____ _____.” A real Hai Rui
The Neo-Confucian interpretations and commentaries of _____ _____ (1130–1200), declared orthodox in the fourteenth century, contained authoritative understanding of the Classics. Zhu Xi
Chinese students memorized the primers called Three [_____ Classic], Hundred [_____ Classic], and Thousand [_____ Classic], and then the _____ _____, the heart of the Neo-Confucian curriculum. Character; Names; Character; Four Books
Containing the Analects of _____, the _____, the ____ ____ ____ ____ ____, and the _____ _____, the Four Books had been chosen as the most profound expressions of the ancient wisdom that should animate and control individuals, states, and societies. Confucius; Mencius; Doctrine of the Middle Path; Greater Learning
Memorization of the Confucian texts served a useful function in learning to _____ a language with tens of thousands of characters and no alphabet to indicate _____. Read; pronunciation
Zhu Xi believed that the purpose and meaning of “study” did not lie in simply becoming familiar with the content of a text to pass an exam. Rather, the student must _____ the text. Internalize
In the process of memorizing Confucian texts, many students became skillful _____, _____, _____, and _____ _____. Philosophers; philologists; historians; literary critics
For over two millennia, elite Chinese concentrated on _____ _____ as the core of all important knowledge. Written texts
Young men taking civil service exams wrote in a precise form of prose, with __ rigidly defined parts. 8
Those who passed the civil service exams at the lowest level bore the title of _____. Xiucai
_____ were second-degree holders whose status would give them province-wide prestige, the right to hold some public offices, and permission to take the triennial metropolitan exams. Juren
_____ were “presented scholars" whom the emperor personally examined and ranked, after which they could receive assignments as government officials. Jinshi
Jinshi became the _____ men, individually loyal to _____ _____. Emperor’s; His Majesty
What bureaucratic work of the central government did the 6 ministries do? Transmission and filing of documents, keeping of accounts and statistics, writing and distributing of reports, organization and supply of armies and navies
What were the 6 ministries of the emperor-centered, Confucian system? Revenue and Finance, Personnel, Rituals, War, Law and Punishments, and Public Works
Beijing sent officials to _____ , _____, and _____-_____ posts throughout the Ming state. Provincial; prefectural; county-level
Official roles of officials included: _____ _____, _____ _____, _____, _____, _____ _____ _____, and _____ _____ _____ _____ _____. Police chief; tax collector; judge; jailer; instructor in morality; keeper of granaries for emergencies
The _____ oversaw the officials and, in theory, ensured that they did not act selfishly or corruptly. Censorate
The emperor’s daily work consisted of meeting with his officials in the _____ _____ (usually held at dawn, except on the coldest winter days) and handling a vast volume of _____ presented to him by the Office of Transmission. Regular Audience; paperwork
The emperor spent hours each day reviewing _____, _____, _____, and _____. Proposals; reports; petitions; and accounts
The _____ _____, personally chosen by the emperor, controlled his access to information and thus his view of the realities outside his palace. Grand Secretaries
The emperor rarely left his palace, the _____ _____ in the north central part of Beijing. Forbidden City
In his capacity as the ____ ___ ____, the emperor performed numerous, precisely regulated rituals, plowing the first symbolic furrows in the spring and praying to his own ancestors to maintain the peace of the realm and the smooth flow of the seasons. Son of Heaven
Destructive natural phenomena called the emperor's virtue (even that of the entire dynasty) into question, so he tried to prevent them through _____, _____, and ____. Sacrifices; prayers; music
Chinese civilization lacked an indigenous _____ myth. Creation
All things, even mountains and the heavenly bodies, contain the interaction and flow of _____ and _____, not least the human body itself, in which invisible channels contain that movement. Yin; yang
Skilled doctors can stimulate or interrupt yin and yang energy by prescribing medical herbs and diet, by applications of heat or massage, or by insertion of thin needles, a process called _____. Acupuncture
Reading the flow of dynamic yin and yang energy in hills and valleys, even in domestic space, to help people arrange their homes and the graves of their ancestors in harmonious locations is called _____. Fengshui
Since the earliest days of Chinese civilization, a crucial facet of the emperor’s power therefore lay in the regulation of _____, the creation of the _____ and the almanac, even the naming of _____. Time; calendar; years
The first Ming reign-period was called _____ (Magnificent Martial, 1368–1398) and the last one _____ (Sublime Auspicious, 1628–1644). Hongwu; Chongzhen
High officials built luxurious mansions “_____ _____ ____ ____ ____” and retired there when they left government service. Back home in the country
Prosperous merchants linked their names to official families through _____ _____, for they shared a high culture of art connoisseurship and a common desire to perpetuate their elite status through education and the examination system. Marriage ties
The Ming state used _____ only rarely as currency, relying instead on small _____ ingots and _____ coinage, but many of their subjects still transacted barter exchanges and paid their taxes in grain. Gold; silver; bronze
Extensive _____ and unwillingness to hold precious metal ____ made Ming notes worthless by the mid-fifteenth century. Counterfeiting; reserves
Ming officials wrestled with the problems of _____: the relative value of silver and bronze, hoarding by the wealthy, and the sometimes disastrous impact on the poor of changes in the value of currency. Bimetallism
Merchants from all over the world earned substantial profits by exchanging _____ for Chinese trade goods. Silver
Created by: silvrwood