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SEM2 WHH Review

World History 2nd Semester Review

TopicData
Industrial Revolution Period when products went from man-made to machine made in factories; people moved to cities; entrepreneurs sought new markets to sell their goods; middle-class grew in size and power
Industrialization the use of machinery for manufacturing
Causes and effects of 2nd Agricultural Revolution (c.1700) CAUSES: altered growing seasons due to climate changes; population growth; increased need for food; EFFECTS: improved efficiency; mechanization; increased crop yields; urbanization
Causes and effects of Enclosure Movement Occurred in England; lands held in “common” for use by villagers became privately owned and fenced off; townspeople no longer allowed to farm land or graze animals; facilitated urbanization
Factors of production All resources required to produce an economic good: raw materials, labor (workers) and their skills, tools and money
Mechanization Production characterized by large-scale use of labor saving (workers/wages) machinery and/or robotics
Factories Buildings used to house machinery and workers in the production of goods
Spinning jenny 1764, James Hargreaves; textile industry machine which spun many threads at the same time
Flying shuttle 1733, John Kay; device used in weaving to “fly” threads back and forth in a loom
Water frame 1769, Edward Arkwright; a spinning machine that can be powered by water
Strikes An organized work stoppage intended to force an employer to address union/worker demands
Urbanization The move of people from rural areas to cities (urban centers)
Child labor School-aged (5 to 15 years) workers; legal until late 1800s
Working Conditions during the Industrial Revolution Long hours and low wages; hazardous working conditions: cause injury, maiming, chronic illness or death; factory working due to mechanization of farming
Collective bargaining Negotiation between an employer and a labor union to develop a contract stipulating wages, hours, working conditions, etc.
Worker’s compensation Wages and benefits paid to injured workers while they recover; nonexistent during the Industrial Revolution
Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations Laissez-faire: unregulated exchange of goods and services ; “the invisible hand” no government involvement in the free market; free market would produce more goods at lower prices
Karl Marx, Communist Manifesto, 1848 German philosopher; scientific socialism; struggle between social classes would lead to classless society; founder of communism; proletariat: working class, “have-nots”; bourgeoisie: business owners, “haves”, upper and middle-class
Conservatives Person who believes in the value of established and traditional practices in politics and society; marked by moderation or caution; not accepting of rapid change
Liberals Person who believes in progress; stand for the protection of political and civil liberties; considers government as a crucial instrument for amelioration of social inequities of race, gender or class, etc.
Radicals Person who embraces significant and often rapid change in political ideas and behavior even to the point of violence
Simon Bolivar Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia; fought for liberation from European control in the New World
Jose de San Martin: Argentina; fought for liberation from European control in the New World
Causes and effects of Latin American Independence CAUSES: European domination; Enlightenment ideas; nationalism; social injustices; Napoleon invades Spain; EFFECTS: Toussaint L’Ouverture, Bolivar, San Martin, lead successful revolts; colonial rule ends; independence; work to achieve stable democratic gov
Otto von Bismarck Chancellor of Germany under King William I ; Unify Germany through careful use of politics called realpolitik
Count Camillo Cavour Monarchist worked for the unification of Italy; died before unification complete
Giuseppe Garibaldi Italian nationalist; with weapons and two ships from Camillo Cavour gain control of southern Italy
Causes and effects of imperialism (Africa, India, Asia CAUSES: guns, germs and steel; Industrial Revolution; Gold-God-Glory; nationalism; new markets; social Darwinism; EFFECTS: aboriginal resistance; religious conversions; exploited resources: raw materials, human rights (slavery); building of infrastructure
Spheres of influences in China Coastal areas Europeans claimed for exclusive investment or trading privileges without Chinese approval; British: Chang River valley; French: Indochina; Germany and Russia: Northern China
Berlin Conference 1884 Meeting of European powers; divided African territory among European powers; no African representation
Suez Canal Man-made waterway connecting Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea (Northeast Africa/Egypt); originally Egyptian; Egypt defaulted on loans and Britain bought controlling interest ; cut travel time between Europe and East Asia
The Opium War Great Britain traded opium for tea with China; large numbers of Chinese addicted; Chinese government press Britain to stop; Great Britain won the war
Tokugawa Shogunate Tokugawa (family name) Shogunate (supreme military dictator); 1603, Japan, reimposed centralized feudalism, close Japan to foreigners and forbade Japanese travel overseas; over 200 years of isolation–economic growth occurred, some suffered from isolation
Meiji Restoration Reign of Japanese Emperor Mutsuhito (15 years old) a.k.a. Meiji (1868–1912); motto: “a rich country, a strong military.”; delegations to Western countries to study culture and adapted politics and economics to the needs of the Japanese
Total War All available resources of the country are spent on the war effort
Stalemate Deadlock; no advantageous advance available in a war (chess reference)
Western Front During World War I the fighting line in Europe located west of Germany and Austria-Hungary; characterized by trench warfare
Rationing Limit consumption of consumer goods to ensure there are enough supplies like food or gas for the military
Role of Propaganda To promote one’s cause or damage an opposing cause; motivate military mobilization; encourage loans to the government
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Germany’s use of submarines to sink any non-German military or civilian vessel during World War I
Treaty of Versailles June 1919, treaty to end World War I; gave full blame did Germany; required excessive reparations to be paid by Germany; Germany relinquished territories to France or to become independent states
Causes of Russian Revolution -March and November 1917 Political, economic and social problems which followed the revolution of 1905; drain of resources from World War I; the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II
Vladimir Lenin Revolutionary leader of the Bolshevik party; Communist leader of United Soviet States of Russia (USSR); seized and maintained power through military might and violence
Causes of World War I Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand; militarism; alliance systems, imperialism and nationalism
Nationalism Action and emotion related to the love of one’s country
Apartheid South Africa, 1936; an official government policy of rigid segregation; white minority held political power and oppressed black majority and other ethnic minorities
Boycott To refuse to buy, use, or participate in (something) as a way of protesting with the goal of effecting change
Mahatma Gandhi India, 1920s ; leader of the Indian National Congress party; advocated for independence of India from Britain; embraced nonviolent resistance including civil disobedience (refusal to obey unjust laws), boycott of British goods
Government Reactions to the Great Depression (Britain/France/United States BRITAIN: 3 party coalition gov, unemployment benefits; FRANCE: mid-1930s, decreased production increased unemployment, enacted social programs; USA: FDR’s New Deal–economic/social programs, aid to farmers, Social Security, banking/stock market regulation
Benito Mussolini Fascist dictator of Italy prior/during WWII
Totalitarian State/ totalitarianism One-party dictatorship which regulates every aspect of its citizens
Fascism Extreme nationalism; centralized, authoritarian government, not communist; policies glorify the state over the individual: large families, heavy military; destructive to basic human rights: violent enforcement
Joseph Stalin Totalitarian dictator of Soviet Union; Used violent purges to maintain order through fear
Five-Year Plans Stalin’s plan for USSR; Created a government controlled (command) economy; Built heavy industry: oil, coal, steel; improved transportation: railroad; farm collectives: to increase farm output; generally successful except collectives
Adolf Hitler Fascist dictator of Nazi Germany prior/during WWII; Anti-Semitic
Inflation in Germany General increase in prices caused by inability to pay ; WWI reparation payments and the excess printing of money to pay workers
Third Reich’s influence over German life 1930s, Germany a totalitarian state; rearm Germany and built up troop numbers; dealt with any opposition with violence and/or coercion; anti-Semitism Nuremberg laws restricting Jewish freedoms; restricted religious practices; censored communications
Anti-Semitism Prejudice against Jews
Lebensraum Territory believed especially by Nazis to be necessary for national existence or economic self-sufficiency; living space
Appeasement Giving in to pacify an aggressor; Britain and France used toward Hitler by giving him the Sudetenland and Czechoslovakia
Francisco Franco 1936, Spain; conservative general turned nationalist revolutionary turned Fascist leader ; aided by Hitler and Mussolini
Blitzkrieg Nazi war strategy which used surprise and quick moving acts to overwhelm their opponent included repeated bombings of Great Britain
Invasion of Poland Germany and the Soviet Union takeover of Poland; ignited World War II
The Holocaust 1933-1945, The Nazis massacre of 6+ million Jews ; 6+ million non-Jews were killed as well
Causes and effects of Japan’s quest for natural resources CAUSES: desire for natural resources but mainly to build the Japanese Empire in Asia, extreme militarism ; EFFECTS: gross brutality, enslavement, killing and torture of those conquered; U.S. embargo of war goods to Japan
Atomic bombs Nuclear, most devastating weapon of the time; United States bombed Japan at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 which hastened Japanese surrender
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization; alliance formed after World War II between the United States and western European countries
Warsaw Pact Soviet Union response to NATO; alliance formed between communist countries and East Europe
Causes of World War II Rise of the Nazi party in Germany; hardships of the Great Depression; German nationalism; revenge for the Treaty of Versailles/WWI reparations
Berlin Wall Wall built around Western Berlin by the Communists East Germans to prevent emigration of East Germans to democratic West Berlin; located in the middle of East Germany
Iron Curtain The tensions created in the midst of the Cold War by the clash of the United States and Soviet Union’s ideologies
Nuclear Weapons Atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs; capable of mass destruction with a single warhead
Great Leap Forward Mao Zedong’s attempt to advance Chinese culture and economy quickly by establishing backyard industries and agricultural communes
Proxy wars-Vietnam/ Afghanistan During the Cold War; conflicts supported by the United States and the Soviet Union on opposing sides in locations other than their own soil
Ho Chi Minh Communist nationalist who fought the Japanese during WWII and the French to liberate Vietnam
Cambodian Genocide 1970s, perpetrated by the Cambodian Khmer Rouge under Pol Pot; enslaved and killed 1 million Cambodians
Glasnost Late 1980s, Soviet Union under Gorbachev; “openness”, and of censorship and encouragement to people to discuss the country’s problems in an effort to find a solution; led to the end of the Soviet Union
Perestroika Late 1980s, Soviet Union under Gorbachev; restructuring of the government and economy to incorporate some free market reforms; led to the end of the Soviet Union
Revolts in Eastern Europe East Berlin, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia; Occurred as a prelude to the dissolution of the Soviet Union; glasnost facilitated drive of nationalist movements
Causes of Post-WWII colonial independence Colonies financial and bureaucratic drain on Imperial countries; Nationalist movements within the colonies
Creation of Israel 1948, partially in response to Holocaust; Jewish homeland formed out of the British Palestine mandate; United Nations took land from Palestine displacing Palestinians
Israeli-Palestinian conflict Began 1948, in response to the establishment of Israel and the displacement of Palestinians
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 1960 to present, oil cartel originally Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, and Venezuela; later Qatar, Indonesia, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, Angola and Gabon; set member oil production levels to secure fair prices and oil supply
Impact of Ethnic Cleansing Around the world – millions dead ; for those lucky enough to escape there are millions of refugees
Balkans—1990s Eastern Mediterranean states; 1990s, Yugoslavia – violent split into separate states based on ethnic populations; Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and hers ago via, Montenegro, and Macedonia
World’s response to Ethnic Cleansing Often slow to respond as many genocides occur within the sovereignty of a single country (i.e. Rwanda); Failed to stop most incidences; refugee camps for those who escape
Genocide The deliberate killing of people who belong to a particular racial, political, or cultural group
Rwanda Genocide 1990s, 800,000 dead, mostly Tutsis but also sympathizing Hutus; Conflict between two ethnic groups the Hutu majority and the Tutsi minority ; differences in cultural traditions but spoke the same language
Darfur The Sudan, 1.5 million dead; ethnic and religious conflict between Arab Muslims in the north and the non-Muslim, non-Arab and some Christians in the South; 2005 – peace deal after 20 years of civil war; 2011 – southern Sudan voted for independence
Iran-Iraq War 1980 Iraqi dictator, Saddam Hussein; Iraq seized disputed Iraq-Iran border region ; Iraq and Iran attacked oil tankers and oil fields; United States Navy went in to protect shipping lanes
Impact of AIDS in Africa Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; millions dead; orphaned children; loss of skilled and productive workers;
Tiananmen Square Protesters gathered here in 1989 to demand more freedom from the Chinese government; troops killed or wounded thousands
One-child policy China; Limited urban families to a single child and rural families to two children; goal to keep population growth from hurting economic development; enforced with fines and other penalties
Green Revolution a series of research, and development, and technology transfer initiatives that increased agricultural production worldwide; particularly in the developing world; beginning in the late 1960s.
European Union free trade union among European countries; evolved since 1957 from a six member union (European Economic Community) to now 27 member EU countries; 2002, established the euro, a common currency, to facilitate trade; has created some political connections
Globalization The process by which national economies, politics, cultures, and societies become integrated with those of other nations around the world
Outsourcing The practice of sending work to the developing world in order to save money or increase efficiency
Protectionism The use of tariffs and other restrictions that protect the country’s home industries against international competition
Sustainability Development that balances people’s needs today while preserving the environment for future generations
Terrorism The systematic use of fear through violence as a means of coercion and to gain power
Impact of Satellites Thousands circle the earth; uses include communications (TV, telephone and data), observation (scientific research, weather forecasting and military) and global positioning system (GPS) navigation
Internet aka World Wide Web; began 1970s with the military; 1990s gain commercial use; by 2000 – a gigantic network, linking individuals, governments, and businesses around the world; by 2010 – most powerful communication tool, a growing “necessity”
Genetic Engineering The manipulation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) material to produce specific results; research to use on plants and animals; cloning, modifications to eliminate disease or attain specific traits
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement; 1993, created a free-trade zone between the United States, Canada and Mexico; eliminated tariffs on over 10,000 goods; cannot override national and state environmental, health, or safety laws
Chemical Warfare Use of lethal chemicals to kill one’s enemies; variations of chemicals have been used throughout time
Created by: PHS-DK