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Modern East Asia 1-b

Modern East Asia: Chapter 1 - Languages

______ language, because of its relative durability, has come to constitute an important component of cultural continuity in all cultures that use it. Written
Chinese, Japanese, and Korean are not ____ ____ spoken languages. Mutually intelligible
____ stands as a fundamental unifier and divider. Speech
____ ____—a written form that evolved away from spoken language more than 2,000 years ago—unified East Asia as a truth language. Classical Chinese
In China, Japan, and Korea, elite children memorized the ____ ____ of the Confucian canon Four Books
The Four Books came to embody ____ ____ throughout East Asia. “universal” truths
What are texts written with Chinese characters called in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese, respectively? Hanzi; hanja; kanji
Written classical Chinese is predominantly ____ - Chinese characters have little or no inherent relationship to ____ or ____. Non-phonetic; speech; sound
Texts were important in producing a common cultural matrix made up of ____, ____, and ____ expressed in Chinese characters, despite the differences among the three East Asian societies and the mutual unintelligibility of their spoken languages. Confucian; Buddhist; Daoist
Korean and Japanese strongly resemble one another in ____, and historical linguists theorize that they derive from the same “root language,” many millennia ago. Grammar
Some linguists believe Korean and Japanese belong to a larger group, the ____ languages, which would include Mongolian and Manchu, perhaps even the Turkic languages. Altaic
Altaic languages have the____-____-____ sentence order and complex verb structures closely related to levels of ____. Subject-object-verb; politeness
The most important determinants of politeness level in Korean and Japaneses are ____, ____, and ____. Age; gender; and social status
Chinese has no ____ ____ and relies instead on particular ____ to express politeness, humility, or superiority. Verb endings; vocabulary
Neither Japanese nor Korean bears any _____ resemblance to Chinese, and both are relatively _____. Linguistic; homogeneous
The long historical development of cultural China has allowed for much more _____ of regional languages and regionally _____ influences from other languages. Isolation; different
Linguists count between __ and __ mutually unintelligible versions of Chinese speech, distinguished by _____. 7; 9; geography
Chinese people universally call the different speeches “_____” rather than separate “_____.” Dialects; languages
Linguists emphasize the profound importance of the _____ _____ _____ in unifying the Chinese culture area in the absence of universally comprehensible speech. Written Chinese characters
In the past century and more, each East Asian state tried to create a “_____ _____ language." Standard national
A standard national language is a crucial element in the formation of a _____ nation-state, with its feeling of _____ based on a sense of common identity. Unified; nationalism
The modernizing Chinese elites of the early twentieth century chose as the basis for standardization the generic northern speech, called _____, that government officials from all over the empire had spoken to one another. Mandarin
A large majority of Chinese people can now at least understand Mandarin, largely through the widespread influence of _____ _____. Electronic media
Chinese language forms include _____ around Guangzhou, _____ in Fujian and Taiwan, and _____. Cantonese; Hokkien; Shanghainese
The ongoing Chinese national effort to spread Mandarin has met with considerable local _____. Resistance
Japanese and Koreans started using Chinese characters as their written form in the __ to __ centuries ce. 3rd; 6th
When Japanese and Koreans started using Chinese characters as their written form they borrowed _____ with them. Vocabulary
Japanese and Koreans pronounced borrowed words as northern Chinese people did at that time, and those pronunciations have _____ within the Korean and Japanese spoken languages. Evolved
Most of the borrowed vocabulary borrowed from the Chinese by the Japanese and Koreans consisted of _____. Nouns
In Chinese and Korean, each Chinese character has a _____ pronunciation in each spoken language/dialect, but in Japanese a single character might have _____ pronunciations that depend on meaning and context. Single; multiple
Koreans and Japanese developed _____ written forms to supplement and eventually replace (in Korea, at least) Chinese characters. Phonetic
Only the development of _____ _____ _____ enabled the Japanese and Koreans to write their own languages as well as classical Chinese. Phonetic written forms
By the ninth century the Japanese developed a truly phonetic written form, _____. Kana
Each written kana sign represents one of the approximately __ possible Japanese syllables. 50
The kana is called a “_____,” not an alphabet. Syllabary
Modern Japanese uses a mixed writing system including _____ _____ (j. kanji) and two _____ _____, one for Japanese words and one for foreign words. Chinese characters; kana syllabaries
Since the __ century, Koreans have been able to write their own language with a unique alphabet now called han’gŭl. 15th
The Korean alphabet was consciously created by a royal _____-_____ (k. Chiphyŏnjŏn, “Hall of Worthies”) after a survey of all known writing forms. The alphabet was presented to the people by King _____ in 1446. Think-tank; Sejong
Han’gŭl contains signs for all possible consonants or vowels—like an alphabet—but combines them into a _____ for each syllable. Block
Koreans now use han’gŭl for almost all writing, reserving Chinese characters for _____ and _____ _____. Names and academic prose
In the late nineteenth century, East Asians developed a new vocabulary of modernity to translate European and American concepts into their languages, using _____ characters. Chinese
Of the three East Asian languages, _____ has the least complex phonetic system (__ vowels and __ consonants) and can be most effectively romanized. Japanese; 5; 15
Japanese has no _____, so each syllable, even if it consists only of a vowel, must be pronounced _____. Diphthongs; separately
Korean has __ vowels and __-__ consonants (depending on who is counting). 10; 14–19
Korean does have diphthongs, and its numerous _____ and _____ _____ cannot easily be represented with the roman alphabet. Vowels; vowel combinations
With __ consonants (plus one final consonant), __ vowels, and a wide range of diphthongs, Mandarin Chinese is phonetically very complex and does not lend itself easily to romanization. 21; 6
Not only does Chinese utilize a number of sounds difficult to represent with the roman alphabet, it also has _____ (which Korean and Japanese do not). Tones
Unlike the rise and fall of pitch in an English sentence, a tone attaches to every individual Chinese _____. Syllable
Mandarin uses four tones—_____, _____, _____, and _____—while some southern versions of Chinese have as many as nine. High; rising; low; falling
All East Asians put their _____ first, followed by their _____ names, a custom usually interpreted as emphasizing the importance of family (compared to the individual) in East Asia. Surnames; personal
Created by: silvrwood