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Modern East Asia 1-a

Modern East Asia - Chapter 1: Lands

East Asia lies in the ___. Western Pacific
_____ ring the Pacific, and the Korean peninsula and Japanese islands have been built to a great extent by their __________ and ________. Volcanoes, eruptions, erosion
Name two of East Asia’s most sacred and impressive mountains that are volcanic cones. Mt. Fuji in Japan (12,388 ft [3,776 m]) and Mt. Paektu in Korea (9,003 ft [2,774 m])
Give an example of a non-volcanic mountain range. Taiwan’s north–south spine
Mainland East Asia gained its present shape less from volcanic activity and more from ______. The shocks and mountain-building that accompanied the arrival of the Indian subcontinent, riding its tectonic plate
When did Mt. Fuji last erupt? 1707
Where is Mt. Fuji Southwest of Tokyo
Pushing on the great Eurasian continent from the south, the Indian plate gave birth to the _________ range. Himalayan
Some scientists calculate that Mt. Everest rises by _____ per year 1⁄6 of an inch (4 mm)
Which plateau forms the western side of today’s China and is the source of most of its rivers? Tibetan
Which weather pattern from the northwest blows cold and dry from the center of Eurasia eastward, often carrying huge storms of dust and bringing substantial snow in the winter. The continental winds
Which weather pattern comes from the southwest, hot and wet, dropping predictable, substantial spring and summer rainfall on the southern parts of all three culture areas? The monsoon
East Asia can be hit in the fall by___ that can do great damage, especially to the Philippines, Taiwan, Ryūkyū Islands, and Japan. Typhoons
Which oceanic currents bring drought to the whole East Asia region on an irregular, unpredictable basis? El Niño
“China” can refer to which two modern countries? The People’s Republic of China and the Republic of China on the island of Taiwan
What is the culture area of China? The part of the world inhabited largely by people who are culturally Chinese
The term “China” is used historically to refer to ___________. Kingdoms and empires inhabited by the assumed ancestors of the modern Chinese, states with their metropolitan centers in what is now the People’s Republic of China
When and where did the ancient Zhou kingdom flourish? In the first half of the first millennium bce in modern North China
Which empire lasted from 1636–1912 and expanded its frontiers far beyond cultural China and created (roughly) the borders of the modern state? The Qing empire
The Chinese culture area includes __________. The eastern half to two-thirds of the People’s Republic of China
The frontier areas conventionally include _______ Manchuria (the northeast), Mongolia, Xinjiang (eastern Central Asia), Tibet, the Southeast Asian borderlands, Hainan island, and Taiwan island
From its eastern metropolis of Shanghai to its westernmost city, Kashgar, China stretches ____ miles , and nearly _____ miles from its northern border with Russia to southern Hainan. 2,600 miles & 2,500 miles
China possesses rich mineral resources, including _______. The world’s third-largest coal reserves and considerable supplies of tin, iron, petroleum, natural gas, phosphorus, sulfur.
China’s supply of ________ exceeds the rest of the world combined and constitutes a major export. Rare earth metals
What is the overwhelming geographical and historical feature of the Chinese culture area ? It can be farmed
Until the late twentieth century the vast majority of East Asia's population did what? Grew plants and raised domestic animals in villages or on individual farmsteads
Some of the most ancient Chinese texts argue what? Humankind’s only natural, ideal environment is the agricultural community, surrounded by its fields and unsullied by commerce or urban culture.
Anthropologist G. William Skinner divided the Chinese culture area into ___ physiographic macroregions, each centered on one or more river valleys and ringed by hills or mountains. 9
Skinner analyzed each Chinese macroregion as having a _________ ______, more urban and commercially active, and ______, usually less accessible, less populous, less developed, and less responsive to state control. Regional core, peripheries
With the exception of the ______, the macroregions lie in ___tiers, corresponding to the ____ valley in the north, the _______ valley in the center, and the _____ system in the south. Northeast, 3, Yellow River, Yangzi River, West River
The Yellow River, Yangzi River, West River follow the continent’s downward tilt from Tibet to the sea, flowing from ____ to ______. West, east
Though not corresponding precisely to administrative divisions or language/dialect differences, the macroregions do effectively map areas of relatively dense connections (____) and the obstacles that separate them (_______). Cores, peripheries
The farms of ______ and _____ China receive the copious, reliable rains of the monsoon and may thus grow _____. Central, southern, rice
The _____ plant produces more food per acre than any other grain. Rice
The northern parts of the Chinese culture area, Northern Koreans and northern Japanese have sufficient rainfall only for _____ crops. “dry-field”
The northeast ______, the plateau of the upper _____ ________ and the ____ ______ plain lie outside the monsoon zone and thus depend on the less predictable rainfall of temperate _____. (Manchuria), Yellow River,North China, Eurasia
Which grains are suitable for dry-field agriculture? Wheat, sorghum, barley, millet, and, since the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, corn (maize)
Northeast China has proved especially appropriate for the hardy, nutritious _____, an important source of both _____ and _______ for the entire region. Soybean, proteins, fertilizers
The Yellow River has both enriched North China's ______ and threatened it with ______. Watershed, flooding
The Yangzi River is called “____ ______” in Chinese. Long River
The Yangzi River carries the high country snowmelt through ____ macroregions, all with ____, _____ climates and reliable ______ _______, enabling intensive rice agriculture. 3, hot, humid, monsoon rains,
The Sichuan (“four rivers”) basin in the west has a population greater than that of most countries—over ________. 110,000,000
The Sichuan basin has ______, _______ crops. Rich, varied
The Sichuan basin's western mountains are home to China’s famous _____ _______. Giant pandas
The Middle Yangzi, originally the river’s natural flood-control zone of lakes and swamps, has been drained, diked, and farmed during the past ___ years. 500
The Middle Yangzi inhabitants receive good crops but live in annual danger of ______. Flooding
The Lower Yangzi is water country, China’s “land of _____ and ____,” a highly ______ region in which most goods and people move by boat. Rice, fish, commercialized
The Lower Yangzi has produced myriad famous ______ and holds many of China’s _____ centers, including its commercial capital, ______. Scholars, urban, Shanghai
The three southern macroregions of China differ in ______ but all share ____ summers and the reliable ________. Topography, hot, monsoon
The _____ plateau, China’s southwestern corner, has been incorporated into China-based states for only ____ years. Yun-Gui, 700
Yun-Gui contains many of China’s culturally ______ peoples and some of its most spectacular ______. Non-Chinese, scenery
The ______ macroregion of China, centered on the West River delta and the great city of Guangzhou (Canton), can support three _____ crops per year in its _____ climate. Lingnan, rice, frost-free
Much of the Chinese diaspora claims ____ ancestry. Cantonese
The ______ _______ of China, nearly coterminous with Fujian province, is cut off from the rest of the country by rough _____and thus very much oriented toward the _____. Southeast coast, hills, sea
China's southeast coast hillsides produce much of China’s ______, and its people have both emigrated to and traded with the “southern ocean” (the South China Sea) and the off shore islands— the _____, ________, and the ______. Tea, Ryūkyūs, Taiwan, Philippines
The _____, upper _____ ______, ______, and ____ macroregions, occupying the _____ and _____ edges of the Chinese culture area, also include many culturally non-Chinese people and constitute the cultural transition zones. Northeast, Yellow River, Sichuan, Yun-Gui, northern, western
The ______ zones of contact and danger have concerned China-based states more than the ___. Inland, sea
______ _______ and ____ ______ people have long inhabited the mountains surrounding the northeastern macroregion and the great deserts (gobi in Mongolian) and grasslands to their west. Forest-dwelling pastoralists, nomadic herding
____ ______ from infancy, ______ and ________ peoples had the reputation of fierce _____ warriors who could trade with or raid the Chinese agricultural communities to their south. Horse riders, Tungusic, Mongolian, cavalry
Tungusic and Mongolian peoples spoke languages distantly related to _____ and ______, followed the advice of ______ who channeled the spirits of gods and ancestors, and occasionally gathered together in large-scale confederations led by _____ ________. Korean, Japanese, shamans, warrior chieftains
Name some notorious Mongolian and Tungusic peoples. Attila the Hun, Chinggis (Genghis) Khan, and Tamerlane.
_______ and _______ people live in the forbidding territories west of China Proper, on the grasslands north of the Tianshan Mountains, in the oases surrounding the great Taklamakhan desert, and scattered across the high Tibetan plateau. Tibetan and Turkic
____ language and culture occupy the space between India and China, borrowing from both but belonging to neither. Tibetan
The _____ peoples of what is now called Xinjiang—the “New Frontier” of the Qing empire—share both language (Turki) and religion (Islam) with peoples on the west side of the Pamir Mountains in Central Asia (Uzbeks, Kazakhs, etc.). Turkic
The hillcountry peoples of China’s southwest (______ _______) and ______ _____ are close kin to Southeast Asians—Hmong (Miao), Thai, Lao, Burmese (Mon), Malay—and share their _____ and ______. Yun-Gui plateau, Hainan island, languages, cultures
The hillcountry peoples of China’s southwest practice _____ (slash-and-burn) or _____ agriculture. Swidden, sedentary
Some now conceive of the hillcountry peoples of China’s southwest territory as the eastern edge of “____,” a 2002 coined name for the mountains extending from northern Vietnam through southwestern China and the Himalayas to northern Pakistan. Zomia
The diverse peoples of Zomia, beyond the control of centralized states, share a long history of maintaining their highland cultures, protected by _____ ______and defended with ______ ______. Rugged terrain, independent spirit
After brief Dutch and Spanish occupations and the Qing conquest (sixteenth–seventeenth centuries), a flood of migrants from Fujian claimed ____’s plains for rice agriculture. Taiwan
Once incorporated into China-based states, the frontier zones have become targets for considerable Chinese settlement, a process accelerated by the development of ______ and ______ connecting the frontiers to China Proper. Highways, railroads
With the exception of ____, in 2010 all of China's frontier zones have populations more Chinese than indigenous. Tibet
________ is the mythical source of the Korean people. Mt. Paektu
The foot of Mt. Paektu lies only _____ miles from southwestern Japan. 120
About the size of ______, surrounded by the ______ and more than _____ islands, Korea presents many challenges to its human inhabitants. Minnesota, sea, 3,500
Only __ percent of Korea's land area can be used for agriculture, and north–south transportation routes—along which population must be concentrated—are very scarce. 15
The climate of the mountainous northern third of the peninsula is ___ ____, contributing to the agricultural vulnerability of contemporary North Korea. Bitterly cold
______ is the capital of the last royal dynasty in Korea. Seoul
Below Seoul, moderating influence of the _____ creates a fairly long growing season, and the ____ _____, which cover the southern two-thirds of the peninsula, provide reliable water supplies for growing paddy rice. Ocean, monsoon rains
In Korea, extensive plains may be found only along the two major rivers, ____ and _____, in the southwest (Chŏlla), and the southeast (Kyŏngsang). Han, Taedong
What is North Korea’s capital? Pyongyang
What marks the border between Korea and China? Yalu
The rapid rise in elevation from the coast and inland valleys prevented ____ ____, but Koreans learned early to use _____ to irrigate the valleys. Canal construction, gravity
In Korea in the southern provinces, skillful ____ _____ created the peninsula’s grain bowl. Hydraulic engineering
Korea's mountains, though forbidding, had _____ value, not only as _____ but also as locations for a well-designed ______ system. Strategic, defense, warning
In Korea, the south is _____ populated, with its higher temperatures, longer growing season, and more water, and the north is _______ because it is less arable and drier. Densely, sparsely
Korea's ______ resources are concentrated in the north. Mineral
Korea was been ruled by a single state—the ____ kingdom (918–1392), succeeded by the _____ kingdom (1392–1910). Koryŏ, Chosŏn
The differences between north and south Korea could be mitigated by ____ ____ and _____ when it was ruled by a single state. Public policy, planning
Korea divided into two states in the wake of ___ ___ __ , with predictable effects for the _____ of the north. World War II, economy
In Korea, relatively _____ population and _____ divisions maintain regional differences in language, which correspond to different food cultures and local religious customs. Immobile, mountainous
The relatively isolated northeast of Korea (____) retains its strong, difficult dialect and remains rural and poor. Hamgyŏng
In northwest (_____), close to the main routes to China, the local population has a more commercial and cosmopolitan orientation but suffered discrimination by Seoul elites under Chosŏn. P’yŏng’an
The central region (____) of Korea contains Seoul. Kyŏnggi
Seoul is the source of the now standard “_____ _____” and most of the Chosŏn kingdom’s elites and their sources of wealth. National language
Mountains divide the lower peninsula of Korea into the ____ and ____ provinces. Chŏlla, Kyŏngsang
Chŏlla is Korea’s _____ bowl and consequently had high rates of tenancy and absentee landlordism. Rice
Chŏlla developed a reputation as ______. Low-class
Southeastern Korea (____), though predominantly rural, had the human and economic resources to produce the South Korea elite for most of the past half-century. Kyŏngsang
The omnipresent ocean provided Koreans with crucial food resources through _____ and, more recently, _____. Fishing, aquaculture
Despite being surrounded by water, Koreans did not develop a tradition of maritime _____ and _____ outside the coastal fisheries. Commerce, transportation
Korea created some of the world’s first _____ warships (sixteenth century). Iron-plated
Japan is a _____ country, its many short, fast rivers flowing down from a central “spine” of _______ __________. Mountainous, volcanic mountains.
Japan is made up of ___ major islands and ____ small islands. 4; 1,700
Japanese rulers did not control the northernmost island of Hokkaidō until the late __ century. 19th
Japan is about the size of which U.S. state Montana
Superimposed on a map of the United States, the four main islands would stretch from _____ in the north to _____ in the south, with similar corresponding climates. Maine; Florida
Hokkaidō has ____, _____ _______, while the _______ climate of Kyūshū, in the southwest, can support three harvests per year. Cold, snowy winters; subtropical
Most of Japan receives abundant rainfall in __ rainy seasons. 2
In Japan, the _____ season in June and early July irrigates spring crops (fruits, rice, vegetables), and the ____season in fall provides moisture for fall crops (wheat, millet, buckwheat). Monsoon; typhoon
The mountains that cover __ percent of the main island of Honshū trap frigid winter moisture—the continental winds—blowing in over the Sea of Japan from Siberia, depositing more than __ feet of snow on the island’s western side. 80; 10
Before the end of the last Ice Age, Japan lay on the easternmost edge of _____, with a ____ connection that permitted the easy movement of people throughout Northeast Asia. Eurasia; land
One strand of migration to Japan came from the northwest through _____ and _____. Another likely came by sea from ____ ____ and ____. Manchuria; Korea; Southeast Asia; Micronesia
By ____ ____, rising sea levels at the end of the Ice Age covered the land bridge between Japan and Eurasia. 10,000 bce
The nearest point on the main islands of Japan currently lies about ___ nautical miles from Korea and more than ___ from China, so cultural connections with the continent came mainly via Korea. 120; 500
Large mounds of shells and animal bones, as well as the earliest pottery in East Asia (dating from the last Ice Age), indicate that the prehistoric Japanese lived along the _____, surviving through ____ and ____. Coast; hunting; fishing
In prehistoric Japan, tiny communities lay isolated by ____ ____ and ____ ____ that ran down to the sea. Dense forests; hilly terrain
In prehistoric Japan, each small community attached itself to its geographical region, worshipping ____ deities. Regional
Not until the ____ period did the notion of Japan as a “realm” evolve, succeeded by the idea of a modern Japanese “nation” in the late __ century. Tokugawa; 19th
____ ____, ____ ____, and ____ arrived from the continent with the immigration of a large number of people from the Korean peninsula around 300 bce. Crop agriculture; animal domestication; sericulture
Archaeological studies of gravesites from 300 BCE indicate that Korean immigrants lived mostly in ___ Japan—around the Inland Sea. Western
Gradually Korean immigrants to Japan and their material and productive culture moved eastward, where two large plains could accommodate the new practice of ____. Agriculture
The ____-____ plain, called ____, where Kyoto and Osaka are located, became the cradle of Japanese civilization. West-central; Kansai
By the mid-500s ce, the Kansai plain, then known as Yamato, supported what evolved into the Japanese ____ ____, a concentration of power, culture, religious belief, and wealth. Imperial household
_____ settled heavily on the east-central large plain of Japan, called Kantō from the late medieval period on, only around 1200 ce. Agriculturalists
The great central city (now Tokyo) of the east-central plain of Japan did not develop until the __ century. 17th
In the early modern period, new ____ ____ overcame the limits of geography, allowing less fertile and more mountainous land to be farmed, which allowed Japans' population to grow. Agricultural techniques
Urban folk, even after the 6th century introduction of Buddhism, held mountains such as Kōya, and Fuji to be sacred spaces, the dwelling places of ____ ____. Such ____also inhabited waterfalls and other sites of natural beauty. Powerful spirits; deities
Created by: silvrwood