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Chapter 31, 33, 34

The Cold War

satellite state a country that is dependent on another country, particularly used to refer to the Eastern European countries the Soviet Union influenced politically and economically
policy of containment the plan to keep communism where it was and not allow it to spread farther
arms race building up weapons and the military in order to keep up with the enemy, particularly used to refer to the U.S. and USSR's nuclear arsenals during the Cold War
proxy war a war where the major powers fight through other countries, rather than directly
domino theory the idea that if one country falls to communism, other surrounding countries also will
de-Stalinization the process of eliminating Stalin's ruthless policies and criticizing his actions after his death
detente a time of relaxed tensions between the USSR and U.S. beginning in the 1970s
perestroika Gorbachev's policy of economic restructuring of the Soviet Union
glasnost Gorbachev's policy of openness in political and social issues
The Cold War a time of tension between the U.S. and USSR and their allies from 1945 until 1991, including disagreements on economic policies and world influence
capitalism an economic system in which private companies and individuals control industry and the economy with the goal of making a profit
communism an economic system proposed by Karl Marx in which all property is publicly owned and the economy is controlled by the government
Joseph Stalin the Soviet leader who helped bring about the Cold War by installing communist governments in Eastern Europe
Harry Truman the U.S. president (1945-1953) who created a plan to pump money into countries to help prevent communist expansion
Nikita Khrushchev the Soviet leader after Stalin who constructed the Berlin Wall and was seen as weak for backing down in the Cuban Missile Crisis
Dwight Eisenhower the U.S. president (1953-1961) who adopted a policy of massive retaliation in Asia
John Kennedy the U.S. president (1961-1963) who successfully ended the Cuban Missile Crisis and sent military advisers and CIA operatives to Vietnam
Fidel Castro the leader of the communists in Cuba who took power by overthrowing the dictator in 1959 and had close ties with the Soviet Union
Ho Chi Minh the leader of the communists in Vietnam who waged a guerrilla war against the United States until they left Vietnam in 1975
Lyndon Johnson the U.S. president (1963-1969) who officially sent troops to Vietnam and escalated the U.S. war there
Richard Nixon the U.S. president (1969-1974) who increased U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia by bombing Vietnam's neighboring countries, Cambodia and Laos in order to take out communists there and also helped lead to the policy of detente
Leonid Brezhnev The Soviet leader who helped create the policy of detente by signing the SALT treaties but would not give up power in Eastern Europe
Jimmy Carter the U.S. president who initially canceled American participation in the 1980 Moscow Olympics because of their involvement in Afghanistan (1977-1981)
Imre Nagy the leader of Hungary who tried to break free of communism and Soviet control in 1956 only to be killed by the Soviets
Mikhail Gobachev the leader of the Soviet Union (1985-1991) whose policies of glasnost and perestroika led to the collapse of the Soviet Union and communism there
Lech Walesa the leader of Poland's trade union, Solidarity, who fought for free elections and was eventually elected president of Poland in 1990
Ronald Reagan the U.S. president (1981-1989) who increased spending on the military in an attempt to bankrupt the Soviet Union, known as a "Cold War Crusader"
Eastern Europe this area was under Soviet influence and communist control after World War II and many countries here made up the Warsaw Pact
Western Europe this area was allied with the U.S. and capitalism during the Cold War and many nations here were members of NATO
Germany this country was split into two (West and East) during the Cold War with the U.S. influencing the West and the Soviets controlling the East
Berlin this city was split into two (West and East) during the Cold War with capitalism in the West and communism in the East
China this country became a communist ally of the Soviet Union in 1949 when Mao Zedong and the communists won the civil war there
Korea this nation was split into two (North and South) at the 38th parallel with communism in the North and capitalism in the South, also the location of a U.S. war to contain communism between 1950 and 1953
Vietnam this country was temporarily split into two (North and South) at the 17th parallel and was the location of a U.S. war between 1955 and 1975 but fell to communism after the U.S. left the country
Cuba this country, 93 miles from the coast of Florida, became communist and an ally of the Soviet Union in 1959
Hungary this country saw a movement against communism and free elections in 1956 that was put down forcefully by the Soviet Union
Czechoslovakia this country saw a movement against the Soviet Union and a loosening of political control led by Alexander Dubcek in 1968 which was forcefully put down by the Soviet Union
Poland this country saw the rise of the Solidarity movement calling for free elections and broke ties with the Soviet Union in 1988 when communist rule ended there
The Truman Doctrine this was the U.S. policy of giving money to Greece and Turkey beginning in 1947 in order to prevent communism there
The Marshall Plan this was the U.S. policy of rebuilding post-war Europe by giving more than $13 billion in aide to help prevent communism
Berlin Airlift when Stalin blocked western forces from bringing supplies to West Berlin, the U.S. flew in supplies for 11 months, demonstrating the U.S. was not willing to let Berlin fall to communism
NATO the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, this was formed in 1949 as a defensive agreement between Western European nations, the U.S. and Canada to defend against an attack by a communist nation
Warsaw Pact this was the Soviet response to NATO, formed in 1955, as an alliance between communist countries in Europe
Korean War a conflict between the U.S. and communists from 1950 to 1953 in which the country was and remains split between communism in the North and capitalism in the South, demonstrated the U.S.'s fear of the domino theory
Cuban Missile Crisis the closest the world came to nuclear war during the Cold War, involved missiles aimed at the United States in Cuba in 1961 which were later removed by the Soviet Union
Vietnam War an American war to prevent the spread of communism in Southeast Asia between 1955 and 1975 in which the U.S. was unsuccessful
SALT I and II Strategic Arms Limitation Talks in which the U.S. and the Soviet Union agreed to reduce their nuclear arsenals in the 1970s
Reunification of Germany upon the collapse of the Berlin War in 1989, this country officially became one again in 1990, signifying the impending end of communism in Europe
the start of the Cold War different ideologies, experiences in WWII, distrust, and atomic weapons led to this
the end of the Cold War Gorbachev's policies of reform and the realization that the 2nd World was much poorer than the 1st led to this
Created by: Mrs. Marquardt