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MWH Review Part 5

Summerville High School MWH

TermDefinition
Axis Powers Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Adolf Hitler Fascist dictator of the Third Reich, or Germany. Appointed to power, then created a totalitarian state.
totalitarian strategies eliminate political opposition. use secret police. propaganda, censorship, give your members cool uniforms, youth groups, charismatic leadership
Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact Hitler signed an agreement not to attack the Soviet Union and divide Poland in advance of WW2.
Munich Conference Allied leaders allowed Hitler to keep the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia) in order to avoid war. An example of how appeasement is not a good policy.
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 Soviets under Khrushchev put missiles in Cuba because they think America is weak. Kennedy blockades Cuba; soviets withdraw. Closest event to actual war during Cold War.
Germany's goal before WW2 Build world wide empire
Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Japan attacked the United States naval based. This led to the US joining WW2.
Marshall Plan Money for the rebuilding of Europe after World War II. Eastern European nations under the control of the Soviet Union did not accept the money. Financial part of the containment policy.
Korean War United States and the United Nations tried to stop the communist takeover of Korea. Ended with a cease-fire agreement at the 38th parallel in 1953.
Iran Hostage Crisis Nov 4, 1979 – Jan 20, 1981 occurred when Iranian revolutionaries seized the U.S. Embassy in Tehran. Symbolizes the growth of radical Islamist governments.
Suez Canal Conflict 1956, Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-70) nationalized the canal, which led England, France and Israel to invade Egypt. The US threatened each country with sanctions. USSR tried to influence.
Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961 - failed attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro, the communist leader of Cuba. Cuban exiles attacked Cuba without the promised help of the U. S. Air Force. Low point in President Kennedy's administration.
Mikhail Gorbachev Last General Secretary of the USSR. Policies of perestroika and glasnost led to the end of Soviet totalitarian rule.
glasnost Gorbachev's policy of openness. Decrease of censorship and government propaganda. Allowed some freedom of speech and freedom of the press.
perestroika Gorbachev's policy of economic restructuring which encouraged private ownership of small businesses. This led to the end of economic control by the Soviet Union.
Supranational organizations Organizations that protect the interests of a group of countries. They are separate from individual countries. The create policies and advocate for member countries.
Organization of American States (OAS) Example of a supranational organization, develops policies and handles conflict between countries in the Americas.
European Union (EU) Established in 1993 to promote social, political and economic cooperation under regional governments in Europe.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO; military alliance between the United States and several European nations created during the Cold War to defend against the Soviet Union
United Nations formed in 1945 and promotes world interconnectedness economically, politically, socially, technologically, and militarily. Replaced League of Nations
Universal Declaration of Human Rights issued by the United Nations in 1948, after the horrors of the holocaust were discovered. Describes the basic rights that all people should have regardless of race, gender or nationality.
Israel 1948 created through a combination of British, US and United Nations efforts, Israel was created out of British controlled territory in the Middle East. This has caused conflict because many Muslim nations disagree with the creation of this country.
Israeli-Palestine Conflict occurred when Israel was established, Muslims living in Israeli territory (Palestine) objected to a Jewish state in Palestine.Conflict between Israel and Palestinians continue today.
Nelson Mandela Leader of the African National Congress which supported independence in South Africa and the end to apartheid or the separation of races.
Martin Luther King Jr. led the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and promoted non-violent protests and the establishment of civil rights and voting rights.
Mohandas Gandhi Indian independence from Great Britain and non-violent protests.
powder keg of Europe Balkans- because there was so much nationalists pressures that one spark would start a war
Allied Powers USA, Britain, France, Soviet Union
Created by: amygilstrap7