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History Final

Protestantism One of the 3 major branches of Christianity. They believe that after death eternity is either spent in Heaven, is you accept Jesus as your savoir or Hell. Formed from the split of the Roman Catholic Church which is known as the Reformation.
Catholicism Eastern Orthodox split from the Roman Catholics over the “Icon Controversy” (the worshipping of saints). The Eastern Orthodox only wanted to worship Jesus.
Spanish Armada A Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in August 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
English Civil War Causes Based on the conflict between the King Charles I and the Parliament. Charles claimed the divine right of Kings as his right to rule. He dissolved his Parliament. When they sought guarantees for their freedoms.
English Civil War Effects A constitutional monarchy was established. England remained Protestant.
English Civil War Groups Involved Roundheads(supporters of the Parliament) vs Cavaliers(supporters of the king)
Divine Rights of Kings Belief that god made men kings so that makes them kings over man.
Thomas Hobes Founder of the social contract.
Natural Rights A political theory described by philosopher John Locke as equality, that everyone is born with certain natural rights regardless of ethnic group.
John Locke Taught Tabula Rosa (blank mind) that we were all born with a blank mind. Wrote the Two Treatises on Government.
Baroque A style of European architecture, music, and art of the 17th and 18th centuries.
Shakespeare William Shakespeare was an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language.
Scientific Method A method of science since the 17th century, consisting of observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and creation of a hypothesis.
Enlightened Absolutism A system in which rulers tried to govern by enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers.
Galileo 1st European to use a telescope
Copernicus Heliocentric, believed the Earth revolved around the sun
Kepler Orbit of the planets
Newton Theory of gravity
Rene DesCartes Rationalism ( I think, therefore I am)
Francis Bacon Scientific Method
Voltaire Advocated religious tolerance and freedom of speech. Believed that people understand the world through reason. Supported deism.
Montesquieu Wrote Spirit of the Laws which used the scientific method to look for natural laws governing peoples’ social and political behaviors. Made an analysis on checks and balances through separation of powers.
Deism The belief that the universe is like a clock. God, the clock maker, created the universe, set it in motion, and allowed it to run without interference.
Separation of Powers The act of giving the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies.
Diderot Wrote the encyclopedia (a weapon against religious thought), spread enlightened ideas, and attacked religious superstition.
Laissez- Faire The action by governments that keep them from interfering in the workings of the free market and letting things take their own course
Adam Smith Wrote the Wealth of Nations and established free enterprise and capitalism
Rousseau Wrote the Social Contract. Believed that reason and emotions were both important. Defined and described by the Social Contract.
Social Contract A concept in which an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will. Individuals who instead wish to follow their own self-interests must be forced to abide by the general will.
American Revolution A revolution to separate the colonists from the British loyalist in Colonial America
Inductive Reasoning A general statement, or hypothesis, and examines the possibilities to reach a specific and logical conclusion.
Three Estates French social classes, 1) Clergymen 2)Nobles 3) Middle class and peasants who paid all taxes
Louis XVI King of France from 1774 until 1791, after which he was King of the French from 1791 to 1792, before his execution during the French Revolution
Bourgeoise The capitalist class who own most of society's wealth and means of production (Marxism)
Declaration Of the Rights of Man Passed by France's National Constituent Assembly in August 1789, is a fundamental document of the French Revolution and in the history of human rights
Reign of Terror Led by Maximilien Robespierre (Jacobins). A conflict between rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution" 16,000 would lose their heads.
Maximillian Robespierre A French lawyer and politician, and one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. His execution ended the revolution.
Storming of the Bastille When Frenchmen raided the Bastille to free prisoners and get weapons
Directory The government of France after the Reign of Terror, but had little power over the country
Coup d'etat the violent overthrow of an existing government by a small group.
Napoleon Takes over and ends the French Revolution in 1799. Crowned himself emperor in 1804 and established the Napoleonic Code giving equality, individual rights, and religious tolerance.
Conservatism A political and social philosophy that promotes the retaining of traditional social institutions of one’s culture
Liberalism A political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality
Entrepreneurs A person who organizes and operates a business, that takes greater financial risks to do so.
Socialism A political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
Robert Owen A Welsh social reformer and one of the founders of utopian socialism
Robert Fulton A colonial American engineer and inventor who developed the first successful steamboat
James Watt An engineer whose improvements to the steam engine were fundamental to the Industrial Revolution
Karl Marx founder of modern communism and wrote the Communist Manifesto with Engels in 1848
Malthus Published An Essay on the Principle of Population saying that famine, disease, and war are needed to maintain
Ricardo “Iron Law of Wages”, no government help for the poor
Mill Income tax
German Unification Turned into a Military Monarchy. Germany joined Prussia against France.
Otto Von Bismark Leader of German Unification. He caused many wars to gain land.
Garbaldi Leader of the “Red Shins”, sword of the Italian Unification
Romanticism originating in Europe in the late 18th century and emphasized individual's expression of emotion, feelings, and imagination as sources of knowing.
Realism Started in the mid-19th century rejected romanticism. They wanted to write about ordinary characters from life, not romantic heroes in exotic settings. They also tried to avoid emotional language
Natural Selection The process by which heritable biological traits become either more or less common in a population. It is a key step of evolution.
Louis Pasteur Rabies and Anthrax vaccines
Charles Dickens An English writer and created some of the world's most well-known fictional characters. An author associated with realism (Oliver Twist).
Simon Bolivar A member of the creole elite and hailed as the “Liberator of the South”. Led movements that resulted in independence for Spain, Venezuela, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru
Toussaint L'Overture Led a single revolt that gained independence from France for Haiti
Monroe Doctrine A US foreign policy regarding Latin American countries in 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention.
Marx Theory No social classes, all equal
Suffrage The right to vote in political elections.
Modernism A movement toward modifying traditional beliefs in accordance with modern ideas
Sigmund Freud Known as the father of psychoanalysis
Zionism The movement to find a new Jewish Homeland
Assembly Line A series of workers and machines in a factory by which a succession of identical items is progressively assembled.
Proletariat Working-class people (Marxism) or the lowest class of citizens in ancient Rome.
The Balkan Crisis A started when Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia. Serbia wanted Bosnia to become part of a 'Greater Serbia'. Russia assisted Serbia as the protectors of the Slavic people. Serbia and Russia had to back down
Marie Curie A Polish physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
Imperialism To increase wealth, power, and reach of influence of the nation. An imperial nation gains new territory through exploration and military conquest. This competition for greater empires increased the chances for confrontation among other countries.
Berlin Conference 1884–85, aka the West Africa Conference regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and ended with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
The Boer Republics and War Meeting between Germany and Great Britain to divide Africa
Sepoy Rebellion Uprising of Indian soldiers against the British
Opium War Between Great Britain and China over opium trade
Spheres of Influence A country in which another country has the power to affect the development of another
One Hundred Days of Reform National cultural, political, and economic reform movement in China
Boxer Rebellion China tries to get rid of foreign influence
Open Door Policy Sun Yat-sen Protection of privileges with countries trading with China
Tokugawa Shogunate The last federal government of Japan
Commodore Matthew Perry Open trade with the US and Japan
Causes of WWI Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary Imperialism, the competition for greater empires increased confrontation, Militarism, 20th century arms race began and Germany had the greatest military build up, Nationalism
Effects of WWI A harsh Peace, Treaty of Versailles of 1919, New destructive weapons, Global depressions
Participants Russia, Serbia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Russia, Britain, Belgium, Japan, and Britain
Trench Warfare A type of combat where opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other
Weapons Machine guns, tanks, poison gas, airplanes, and submarines
Big Four Woodrow Wilson- U.S George Clemenceau- France David Lloyd George- Great Britain Vittorio Orlando- Italy
Lenin(Revolution) founder of the Russian Communist Party, leader of the Bolshevik Revolution and architect and first head of the Soviet state.
Treaty of Versailles It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919. Placed all blame for the war on Germany and had them pay for the ruin
Archduke Ferdinand Archduke of Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary from 1896 until his death
Schlieffen Plan The German plan to attack France and capture Paris within 6 weeks and move armies to the eastern front to fight Russia
Eastern Front Russia vs Germany and Austria-Hungary
Western Front France and Britain vs Germany and Austria-Hungary
Propoganda information of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote a certain viewpoint
Bolsheviks Former name of the Communist Party before the October Revolution of 1917
Russian Revolution Established the Soviet Union
Communism A political theory from Karl Marx, “From each according to his ability, to each according to his need”
Wilson's 14 Points Fourteen goals of the United States in the peace negotiations after World War I.
Reparations The making of amends for a wrong one has done, by paying money to or otherwise helping those who have been wronged.
Mussolini An Italian politician and leader of the National Fascist Party. Sided with Hitler and Germany in WWII. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance
Hitler An Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party. He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. He initiated World War II and oversaw fascist policies that resulted in millions of deaths.
Stalin The leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
Keynes Economic theory of Deficit Spending, got US out of the Great Depression
Fascism A governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism
The Great Depression Causes Stock Market crashes Bank failure (uninsured, money loaned out) Invested in the stock market Reduction of demand, people stop buying goods, reduction in goods made,
The Great Depression Effects Unemployment
Surrealism Portrayed the unconscious
Franco Former Prime minister of Spain
Concentration Camps A camp in which people are detained or confined, usually under harsh conditions and without regard to legal norms of arrest and imprisonment that are acceptable in a constitutional democracy. In Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1945.
Genocide The killing of a large group of people of a particular ethnic group or nation.
Armenian Genocide The Christian Armenians wanted independence from the Ottoman government. Their government accused them of supporting the Russians. Those allegations were used to kill and exile all Christian Armenians.
Mao Zedong Chinese communist leader
Pan Africanism is an ideology and movement that encourages the solidarity of Africans worldwide. It is based on the belief that unity is vital to economic, social, and political progress and aims to "unify and uplift" people of African descent.
Ho Chi Minh President of North Vietnam
Communist A person who supports or believes in the principles of communism.
The Long March A military retreat by the Red Army of Communist China
Oligarchy A small group of people having control of a country
Chiang Kai shek Head of the Nationalist government in China from 1928 to 1949, and subsequently head of the Chinese Nationalist government in exile on Taiwan.
WWII Participants Australia, Brazil, Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand, South Africa, Soviet Union (from June 1941), United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United States (from December 1941)
Policies of Appeasement A diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an enemy power in order to avoid conflict.
Blitzkrieg A German term for “lightning war,” blitzkrieg is a military tactic designed to create disorganization among enemy forces through the use of mobile forces and locally concentrated firepower.
FDR Wanted America to be apart from the affairs and interests of other groups and countries
Winston Churchill Prime Minister on Great Britain during and after WWII
Harry Truman President of the US that ended WWII, made the call to drop the atomic bomb
D- day The invasion of Normandy
General MacArthur an American five-star general that won many battles in WWII
Pearl Harbor The bombing of a US naval base by the Japanese in 1941
Holocaust The systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. "Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire."
Joseph Stalin Joseph Stalin ruled the Soviet Union for more than two decades, instituting a reign of terror while modernizing Russia and helping to defeat Nazism.
Iwo Jima The Battle of Iwo Jima was a major battle in which the United States Armed Forces fought for and captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Japanese Empire.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki In 1945 an American bomber dropped the world’s first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Three days later, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki
Iron Curtains The notional barrier separating the former Soviet bloc and the West prior to the decline of communism
Truman Doctrine The U.S. will come to the aid of any country threatened by Communism
Marshall Plan The US gave money to help Western Europe rebuild.
Berlin Airlift All highways, roads, canals, and railways were blockaded to prevent the Allies from getting to their zones. However, supplies were sent over the barricades to their sectors
Berlin Wall The wall was a barrier that existed from 1961-1989 that cut off West Berlin form East Berlin
NATO Formation A military alliance signed in 1949 (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
Spacerace(Sputnik) US vs Russia in the space to build space ships to the moon
Chinese Great Leap Forward An attempt to raise China’s economy so it could rival America’s
Proxy War a war instigated by a major power that does not itself become involved.
Domino Theory If one country becomes Communist then all surrounding countries will fall to Communism
Korean War Korea was split after WWII. North Korea- USSR. South Korea- USA. The 38th parallel was the dividing line. North attacked South and the South is pushed back behind the line. The Armistance is signed in 1953 “ending” the war.
Cuban Missile Crisis A 13 day standoff in 1962 between the Soviets and the US. The USSR puts nuclear missiles in Cuba. Kennedy blocks Cuba from the USSR. Almost nuclear warfare (MAD). Ultimately the USSR pulls out of Cuba when the US pulls out of Turkey
Fidel Castro Leader of Cuba during the Cold War, wanted to make Cuba communist
Vietnam War Cause In 1945, Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam a free and independent country. However, the British and Chinese helped the French to return and the USA did nothing to stop them.
Vietnam War Effect Within a year, the Viet Minh were once more fighting for independence from the French.
Iranian Revolution One of the great landowners was the Shah (king), Muhammad Reza Pahlavi. Another was the Shia clerical establishment, which had acquired land through religious endowments
Glasnost a policy that called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union.
Disintegration of Yugoslavia The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989, the unification of Germany one year later, and the imminent collapse of the Soviet Union all served to erode Yugoslavia’s political stability.
Postmodernism is a late-20th-century movement in the arts, architecture, and criticism that was a departure from modernism. Postmodernism includes skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, history, economics, architecture, fiction.
Tiananmen Square Incident Location in Beijing of prodemocracy demonstrations that were brutally suppressed in 1989 by troops loyal to the communist regime of the People's Republic of China.
Nuclear Proliferation the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons, aka Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty or NPT.
Pandemic prevalent over a whole country or the world.
Islam 5 Pillars of Faith •Faith or belief in the Oneness of God and the finality of the prophethood of Muhammad; •Establishment of the daily prayers; •Concern for and almsgiving to the needy; •Self-purification through fasting; and. •The pilgrimage to Mecca
Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
Tennis Court Oath In Versailles, the Third Estate, represent commoners met on an indoor tennis court, in spite of King Louis order to disperse. In these modest surroundings, they took a historic oath not to disband until a new French constitution had been adopted.
Machiavelli Italian diplomat Niccolò Machiavelli is best known for writing The Prince, a handbook for unscrupulous politicians that inspired the term "Machiavellian" and established its author as the "father of modern political theory."
Vishnu The Hindu God Vishnu is the preserver of the universe and upholds Dharma. Thus Lord Vishnu manifests as many avatars (incarnations).
Shiva Shiva is the destroyer of the world
Judaism Three Branches Orthodoxy is the modern classification for the traditional section.Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal or Progressive Judaism) subjects religious law and customs to human judgment.Conservative Judaism abides by modern society's rules
Nirvana a transcendent state in which there is neither suffering, desire, nor sense of self, and the subject is released from the effects of karma and the cycle of death and rebirth. It represents the final goal of Buddhism.
Nixon successfully ended American fighting in Vietnam and improving international relations with the U.S.S.R. and China, he became the only President to ever resign the office, as a result of the Watergate scandal.
Regan His term saw a restoration of prosperity at home, with the goal of achieving "peace through strength" abroad
Khrushev Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev was a Russian politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War.
Yeltisn Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin was a Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999
Bundy Resolution Bundy in southeastern Nevada over unpaid grazing fees on federally owned land that developed into an armed confrontation between protesters and law enforcement.
Putin Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin has been the President of Russia since 7 May 2012. Putin previously served as President from 2000 to 2008, and as Prime Minister of Russia from 1999 to 2000 and again from 2008 to 2012.
Bay of Pigs Cubans welcomed Castro’s 1959 overthrow , yet the new order on the island near the US made American officials scared. Batista had been a corrupt dictator, but he was considered to be pro-American and was an ally to the U.S.
Red Scare the promotion of fear of a potential rise of communism or radical leftism, used by anti-leftist proponents. In the United States, the First Red Scare was about worker (socialist) revolution and political radicalism.
Monroe Doctrine a U.S. foreign policy regarding European countries in 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention.
Warsaw Pact Co-operation, and Mutual Assistance, sometimes, informally WarPac, akin in format to NATO) was a collective defense treaty among eight communist states of Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War.
Martin Luther Martin Luther was a German friar, priest and professor of theology who was a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation