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Semester Review Terms

absolute monarchy rule by a king or queen whose power is not limited by a constitution
aristocracy rule by a privileged hereditary class or nobility
artisan an expert craftsman of wood, metal, stone, or glass products
Black Death the Bubonic Plague that struck Europe during the 14th century, killing 1/3 of the population
bourgeoisie the class of merchants and artisans who were members of the third estate and started the French Revolution;Marxist theory referred to them as the factory owners who oppressed the working class
caliph the Muslim Empire's political and religious leader
capitalism an economic system based on private ownership for the purpose of making profit
caravel small, maneuverable ships used by the Spanish explorers in the 15th century
chinampas platforms of floating gardens used by the Aztecs to extend the available land for agriculture in Lake Texcoco
chivalry the knight's code of honor during the feudal period of Europe
civilization a cultural group with large cities, complex government & religions, advanced technology, and writing systems
Columbian Exchange the transfer of food crops, livestock, diseases, & ideas between Europe & the Americas after Columbus's discovery
communism an economic system in which the state controls the means of production
Conservatism a 19th century political ideology in Europe that supported the continued power of the monarchies, aristocracies, and the church
Cossacks Russian farmer-warriors who conquered and settled Siberia in the 16th -17th centuries
Creoles Spanish colonial citizens born in the Americas to European parents
cultural diffusion the transmission of ideas and products from one culture to another
democracy a political system in which the power rests with the people who vote for leaders
divine right the belief of absolute monarchs that their right to rule is granted by God, not by men
economic imperialism when Europe or America had a controlling influence over the economy of other nations in Latin America, Africa, & Asia
dynasty a series of rulers from the same family
enclosures the fencing-in of pasture land to use for large-scle farming that forced small farmers & herders to look for work in cities, and helped lead to the Industrial Revolution
encomienda the Spanish policy of granting land and the free labor of Native Americans to encourage Europeans to colonize the New World
Enlightenment a philosophical movement in 18th century Europe that was based on using reason, education, & technology to improve the human condition
entrepreneurs the risk-takers who took out loans or private funds, and used land, labor, and capital to create factories and businesses during the commercial revolution
Estates General the legislative body of France, made up of 3 classes of people
facism the political ideology of extreme nationalism, one-party rule, and restriction of individual rights and freedom
feminism the movement to achieve women's rights and status in society
feudalism the political, economic, and social system that was based on the relationship between lord and vassals
fief the grant of land given by a lord to a vassal in return for loyalty and service during medieval Europe
Five Pillars the religious practices required of every Muslim: faith, fasting, charity, prayer, and pilgrimage
footbinding the Chinese practice of breaking and binding a women's foot to confine upper-class women to the home; seen as a symbol of wealth and beauty
genocide the systematic killing of an entire ethnic group
Glorious Revolution the bloodless overthrow of King James I and placement of William and Mary to the English throne, that ended the religious wars
Gothic an architectural style of medieval Europe that combined stained glass windows and towering spires and pointed arches
Hadith the collection of sayings and deeds of Muhamad
hajj the pilgrimage to Mecca that is required of every Muslim at least once in their lifetime
harem the household of wives and concubines of Muslim rulers
Hellenistic Age the time period of 323 B.C.E. - 30 B.C.E. when Greek culture was blended with Persian and Indian influences in the empire created by Alexander the Great
imperialism the establishment of colonial empires by Europe and U.S.A. during the 19th -20th centuries
Incas the people of South American Andean Mountain region who established a powerful empire before being conquered by the Spanish
Indo-European groups of semi-nomadic peoples who began migrating around 2000 B.C.E. from Central Asia to Europe, Asia, & the Middle East
Industrial Revolution the transformation from an agriculture and small artisan-based economy to production through machines in factories that began in England during the 18th century
investiture the authority claimed by kings to appoint church officials that became an issue when the pope tried to exert his influence
Jacobins the extreme radicals during the French Revolution who beheaded the king
Janissaries members of the Ottoman army who were taken and trained as child slaves from Christian territories
Jesuits the Roman Catholic missionary order established by Ignatius Loyola to re-establish Catholic authority in response to the Reformation of Martin Luther in 1534
jihad term for an Islamic holy war or struggle
Ka'aba the black stone/meteorite that was a holy shrine in Arabia prior to the arrival of Islam and became part of the pilgrimage to Mecca
karma the good or evil deeds done by a person that determine where one reincarnates in their next life in Hindu tradition
Khan the title for the Mongol rulers
laissez-faire capitalism the economic concept that the government should not interfere with the way businesses operate
lateen sail a triangular-shaped sail that allowed Muslim merchants to dominate sea trade
Liberalism the political ideology that favors more voting rights and representative government, as well as civil and property rights
Magna Carta document signed in 1215 by King John that limited the rights of the monarchy by granting rights to noble class
Mamluks Turkish military slaves who founded their own dynasty in Egypt and Syria from the 13th - 16th centuries and turned back the Mongol advance into S.W. Asia
mandates the former territory & colonies of the Ottoman Empire that were placed under the rule/control of European nations after WWI with the intention of granting them self-rule (was often ignored)
Mandate of Heaven the belief started by the Zhou dynasty that the gods granted the right to rule and gave signs such as famine or invasion,for that right to be taken away if the previous rulers did not rule wisely
manorialism the economic system of self-sufficient estates (manors) during feudal Europe
mercantilism European economic policy during the 16th-18th centuries that said nations must compete to obtain colonies and acquire as much of the limited amount of wealth by monopolizing trade
mestizos the Spanish colonists of European and Native American descent
Middle Ages the time period in European history between 500-1500 AD
The Middle Passage the portion of the trans-Atlantic trade that involved the shipment of slaves from Africa to America where up to 20% died on the way due to poor conditions
minaret the tower attached to Muslim mosques from which believers are called to prayer 5 times daily
mita the labor system established by the Andean societies where the people owed labor as a form of tax to the rulers & religious leaders
moksha In Hindu belief, the release of the spirit from the cycle of reincarnation by rising up levels of re-birth through good karma
monotheism the belief in one god that was established by the Hebrews under Abraham's covenant with Yahweh
Monroe Doctrine the policy of the US that warned European nations to stay out of Latin American affairs during the 19th century
monsoons the seasonal trade winds between Arabia/India & East Africa that allowed Indian Ocean trade to flourish
mosque the Islamic house of prayer & scripture reading
mulatto the Spanish colonists of European and African mixture
Muslim "one who submits"; a follower of Islam
nation-state a self-governing state whose people share a common culture and identity
natural laws according to enlightenment scientists, the laws that govern nature and can be understood through reason
natural rights rights that belong to every one that the government cannot take away: life, liberty, property
New Testament the portion of the Christian Bible containing the Gospels and letters of Paul
nirvana in Buddhism, the state of perfect peace that is the ultimate goal of reincarnations
parliament a representative assembly that began in England as the House of Lords
constitutional monarchy a king or queen whose power is limited by a constitution and parliament
patriarchy the social system that favors men as head of the family and society
Pax Romana the period of Roman peace and prosperity during the first two centuries 0-200 AD
peninsulares Spanish colonists who were born in Europe and held the highest govt. positions
pogrom organized violence against Jews in Europe & Russia because of anti-semitism
polis Greek city-states
polytheism belief in many gods
Pope the head of the Catholic Church
predestination the belief of protestant John Calvin that God has already decided who goes to heaven n hell
proletariat the class of industrial workers who Karl Marx believed would rise up and overthrow the wealthy factory owners
Protestant Reformation religious movement led by Martin Luther in 1517 to reform the Catholic church, but instead led to new divisions in Christianity
Quecha the language and culture of the Incan people
Radicalism the 18th century European philosophy that fought for extending democracy & reforms for the lower classes
reconquista the recapture of Muslim-held lands by Spanish Catholic forces that forced Jews & Muslims to leave or convert in 1492
Renaissance the revival of learning in Europe that began in Italy during the 1300s and spread to northern Europe by 1600s; Italian was secular;northern was more religious based
romanticism the literary and artistic movement in 19th century Europe that criticized the Industrial Revolution and focused on emotion over reason
sati the Hindu custom of widow suicide by fire, among the upper caste society
social contract the Enlightenment idea that people give up some rights to establish governments in order to protect against others and government's duty is to protect natural rights
Social Darwinism the application of beliefs such as survival of the fittest into the study of natural selection among human
specialization of labor the division of labor that allows people to become experts in specific jobs
stateless societies cultures based on kinship groups instead of a central government or monarch
syncretism the blend of two or more cultural traditions, such as Catholicism with native beliefs
Created by: wm0397