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AP Human Ch.11 Vocab

Industry and Manufacturing - AP Human Geography, Chapter 11, Rubenstein

TermDefinition
Acid deposition Sulfur and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, that enter the atmosphere, combine with oxygen and water to for sulfuric acid and nitric acid, and return to Earth's surface as acid precipitation
Acid precipitation Sulfuric acid and nitric acid that return to Earth's surface as rain, snow, or fog
Air pollution Concentration of trace substances at a greater level than occurs in average air
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) The amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste
Break-of-bulk point A location where it is possible to transfer from one mode of transportation to another
Bulk-gaining industry An industry in which the final product weights more or takes up a greater volume than the inputs. Should be located near market.
Bulk-reducing industry An industry in which the final product weighs less or takes up a lower volume than the inputs. Should be located near inputs.
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) A gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers. Can leak from appliances and damage the ozone layer, so countries have agreed to stop using them by 2020 in MDCs and 2030 in LDCs.
Cottage industry Manufacturing found in homes rather than factories, commonly found prior to the Industrial Revolution
Fordist production Assembly line production
Greenhouse effect The anticipated increase in Earth's temperatures caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface
Just-in-time delivery Shipment of parts and materials to arrive at a factory moments before they are needed
Labor-intensive industry An industry for which labor costs make up a high percentage of the total expenses
Maquiladora A factory built by a US company in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of lower labor costs in Mexico
New international division of labor The transfer of some jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from MDCs to LDCs
Nonpoint-source pollution Pollution that originates from a large, diffuse area
Outsourcing Turning over much of the production to independent suppliers in low-wage countries
Ozone A gas that absorbs UV solar radiation, found in the stratosphere
Photochemical smog An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially motor vehicle emissions. Causes eye stinging, respiratory problems, and haze over a city.
Point-source pollution Pollution that enters a body of water from a specific source
Post-Fordist production Adoption of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks
Right-to-work law A US law that prevents a union and a company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join the union as a condition of employment
Sanitary landfill A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer or earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce the emission of gases and odors, minimize fires, and discourage vermin
Site factors Location factors related to the cost of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital
Situation factors Location factors related to the transportation of materials to and from a factory
Vertical integration An approach to typical mass production in which one company controls all phases of a complex production process
Created by: emilyjane1221
 

 



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