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AP Human Ch.10 Vocab

Food and Agriculture - AP Human Geography, Chapter 10, Rubenstein

TermDefinition
Agribusiness Commercial agriculture integrated into a large food-production industry
Aquaculture/ aquafarming The cultivation of seafood under controlled condtions
Cereal grain/cereal A grass that yields grain for food
Chaff Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing
Combine A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field
Commercial agriculture Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm
Crop roation The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil
Desertification Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions
Dietary energy consumption The amount of food that an individual consumes, measured in kilocalories
Double cropping Harvesting twice a year from the same field
Food security Physical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs for an active and healthy life
Green revolution Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially high-yield seeds and fertilizers
Horticulture The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
Hull The outer covering of a seed
Intensive subsistence agriculture A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers expend a large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Milkshed The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied
Paddy The Maylay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah
Pastoral nomadism A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
Plantation A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country
Prime agricultural land The most productive farmland
Ranching A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
Reaper A machine that cuts cereal grain standing in a field
Ridge tillage A system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
Sawah A flooded field for growing rice
Shifting cultivation A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another. Each field is used for crops for a few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Slash-and-burn agriculture Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris
Spring wheat Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer
Sustainable agriculture Farming methods that preserve the long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating crops and minimizing fertilizers/pesticides
Swidden A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning
Thresh To beat out grain from stalks
Transhumance The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
Truck farming Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was Middle English for bartering
Undernourishment Dietary consumption that is consistently below the minimum requirement for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out physical activity
Wet rice Rice planted on dry land in a nursery then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth
Winnow To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away in the wind
Winter wheat Wheat planted in the autumn and harvested in the early summer
Created by: emilyjane1221