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ch.8 WOH2012

Philip of Macedon, - not the center of Greek culture - “backwoods” of Greece - excellent horsemen and warriors - King of Macedonia, ambitious - knew city-states were tired, decided they needed to be united - assassinated
Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) - decisive battle when he conquered Greece - united/conquered
Alexander The Great - 22 when he became ruler of Greece - wanted to bring east and west together - conquered Persia (approx. 334), did not get rid of culture, goal was unity - established new city in Egypt Alexandria - married Persian princess Roxana
Battle of Issus coastline of modern day Lebanon
- Battle of Gaugamela (331) - Darius III fought in this battle, Persians fought well - Alexander won, gave him access to heart of Persia - Takes Babylon, Susa, Persepolis - doesn’t stop with Persia, northwest India, stopped at the Hyphasis PRIZE WAS EGYPT
Mystery cults - new religions emerged - people turned for reassurance and comfort - looking for a religion that was more personal - exclusive, secrets from everyone but members
koine greek - just like the English language went through different stages, so did Greek language - no longer Classical Greek when Alexander reigned - koine means common, also called Hellenistic Greek - spoke until about the time Rome invaded
Seleucus - one of the two generals who fought for the eastern part of the kingdom - primarily ruled Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Persian, Israel, and Syria - center of Seleucid kingdom of Asia Minor and Syria - Seleucids
What did Alexandria become Became one of the most important centers for Hellenistic culture. Greek speaking capital of Egypt. Library, world-famous, museum (from Greek muses)
How far did Alexander get? He got as far east as the Hyphasis River, northwest India
Ptolemy - one of the two generals who fought for the eastern part of the kingdom - primarily ruled Egypt - alexandria was the most important of the Hellenistic cities - wonderful place to study and think - Last Ptolemaic rulers was Cleopatra 51-30
Stoicism no emotion,belief that there is a guiding intelligence that guides the world, LOGOS, principle that holds the world together, humans have the ability to reason, it makes human beings equal/world brotherhood, to be happy you need to live according to LOGOS
Cynicism, live as simply as possible, you don’t need material things to be happy
Epicureanism how do you experience happiness? most important thing in life is pleasure. Seek pleasure, avoid pain. Pleasure is the goal, but seek in moderation. Two things people fear: death and the gods.
Created by: burdeshawgirl