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ch.7 WOH2012

Homer - wrote Iliad and Odyssey
Phoenicians start to colonize north africa, southern spain, Carthage (founded by Phoenicians) - southern Spain had precious metal, needed natural resources - excellent sailors - created the alphabet - Greeks borrowed the alphabet for their own
Athens - developed army and navy - north on the peninsula - create athenian democracy - citizens had to male, over 18, native born, free - olives were staple of Athens (will make Athens wealthy after Persian War)
Sparta one of the leading city states - well-ruled - very powerful, dominate other tribes - militaristic society (regulated) - boys 7-24 had military training - Helots are Spartan state slaves
Solon - poet - lived on Lesbos - bisexual, husband, daughter, but relationships with girls
Clisthenes - wrote Constitution for Athenian Democracy
Ostracism - marginalize or excluding - originally meant to vote to kick someone out of the city for 10 years (political tool)
Greek colonization (800 - 500) - Greek tribes coming down into Greece - founding cities (polis - city state) - self-governing - spread all over, even to southern Italy, Sicily, Asia Minor, Libya, southern coast of France
Lyric Poetry - developed during the civilization - different from epic poetry - shorter, representation of the poet’s emotion - heard women’s voices pretty strong through poetry
King Cyrus (r. 559 - 529 BC) Founder of Persian empire - “The Great” - originated from Persian Gulf - was able to unite Persians and Medians and Parthians and surrounding various groups around him - conquered Neo-Babylonians, becomes master of Babylonian empire
Persian War - turning point in Greek history - Greek wasn’t a nationality yet the threat of Persia against Greece, brought the Greeks together to fight a common enemy - the man credited to writing the history of the Persian War was Herodotus
Revolt of Ionian Greeks (499) - beginning of the Persian War - five years to put down rebellion - Athenians supported Ionians, sent ships - 490, ships filled with fighting soldiers, sent to Greece by Darius to settle the score - Greeks won (Battle of Marathon - 490 BC)
King Xerxes - invades Greece (two-pronged attack) - one prong took his forces by land - second prong took his forces by sea - Greeks have Spartans helping them - 5,000 Greeks vs. 100,000 Persians at battle at Thermopylae - Persians burn Athens
Battle of Salamis (480) - won by Greeks - Greeks about 40 ships, Persians lost 200 - turning point of war
Battle of Platea (470) - Greeks win this battle - Persians give up Greece - Greeks pushed back Persians from the coastline - Greeks who were together during the war, go back to rival city-states - Athens is rebuilt and becomes one of the most prominent city-states
Delian League - city-states joined with Athens to form a military defense pact - became allies - built economic status - became strong so they could fight back other threats - Spartans and Athenians became competitors for dominance
Peloponnesian War (431 - 404 BC) - Athenians tried to take cities from Spartan League - fighting, truce, fighting, truce - Spartans won
Created by: burdeshawgirl