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Ch. 3 WOH2012

QuestionAnswer
Egypt - one of the oldest and most alluring civilizations in history - founded during the fourth millenium - centered around the life-enhancing Nile river (flows south to north) -no foreign invasion
Old Kingdom (2770 - 2200 BC) I - VI - capital: Memphis - names come from Greeks - time when pyramids were built - end with the downfall of the Sixth Dynasty about 2200 BC - the central government was not strong enough to control the kingdom - nobles ruled (chaotic)
Gizea Where pyramids are located
Zoser - presided over the building of the first pyramid - initiated a period of vastly greater state power and royal absolutism
Pharaoh - power was virtually unlimited - considered to be a child of the sun god - subordinates were priests, he was chief priest - government founded on a policy of peace - no standing army, local areas had their own militia
Thebes (Upper Egypt) - restored centralized rule out of Thebes - Twelfth Dynasty is considered to be the classical or golden age - capital of Middle Kingdom
Second Intermediate Period (1786 - 1760 BC) XIII - XVII - the most important invasion of Egypt - Egypt is fertile, economically diverse, prosperous, and a prize for anyone who can take it - Egypt is invaded by the Hyksos - bronze, horses, chariots brought by the Hyksos - quickly adopted Egyptian ways
Hieroglyphics - deciphered by the Rosetta Stone, it had hieroglyphics, Egyptian, and Greek on it, discovered at Rosetta by Jean-Paulian
Hyksos invaded c. 1750 - from around the Syria area - Hyksos means rulers from the upper lands - Joseph possibly during this time - the Hyksos reign ends when the New Kingdom begins
Book of the Dead - supposed to be what you recite when you reach the Netherlands when you die - collection of statements when you get to the Hall of Judgement - moral code - Job 31 parallels
New Kingdom (1560 - 1087 BC) XVIII - XX - military power now provided the basis of the pharaoh's rule - everyone is judged and if you are worthy, you can go to the next world - started by Ahmose - Hyksos are kicked out - Thebes became capital city again - Pharaoh means “great house”
Hatshepsut (r. 1504 - 1482 BC) - married to Thotmes II her brother - one of the few women to rule Egypt - she reigned for her stepson Thotmos III - she called herself the pharaoh - built her own temple at Deir el-Bahari
Thotmos III (r. 1482 - 1450 BC) egypt reached the height of its power - lead campaigns into syrian area and brought Syria, Nubis - last 10 years of reign were prosperous
Amenhotep IV (r. 1352 - 1336) - he started to have doubts about the gods of Eygpt - said there was only one god, Atten - changed his name - Nerfititi was his wife (sister?) - moved capital city to El-Amarna - named a city Akhetaton
Tutankhamun (1336 - 1327) boy king- only reigned 9 years - god’s name in his name (amun)means living image of Amun - Howard Carter discovered tomb untouched - capital: Thebes - cobra symbol of lower egypt and vulture symbol of upper egypt on crown (symbols of goddesses)
Ramses II (1279 - 1213) last of the great builders last of the powerful pharaohs built the Abu Simbel which is in Upper Egypt almost in Nubia Israelites left Egypt probably during his reign also called rameses the great
Created by: burdeshawgirl