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Chapter 2 WOH2012


Mesopotamia history began here around 3200 BC in Sumer - Tigris and Euphrates River
*Sumer, Sumerians - here the earliest forms of writing were invented - first chapter of history, we could see their records - invented writing, wheel, calendar cuneiform (wedge shaped characters impressed on wet clay)
*Akkad, Akkadians Akkad warrior (Sargon the Great) conquered Sumer around 2320 BC Sargon (r.c. 2316-2279)
Ziggurat temples and shrines built for the gods - the higher the worshiper’s ascent, the closer they were to god - the most sacred part of the temple was at the top
*Babylon and Old Babylonians (2000 to1600 BC) - much of the weight shifted to the city of Babylon - Amorites made the city of Babylon in Akkad the capital, called Old Babylonians - The founder and greatest Amorite ruler, Hammurabi - the beginning of mathematics in Old Babylon (advanced math)
Hammurabi (r.c. 1792-1750 BC) - known as the King of Justice - King of Akkad and Sumer, Kind of the Four Quarters of the World - Code of Hammurabi, stone document containing 282 laws - punishments often seem extreme for the crimes committed & based on rank on social scale
Gilgamesh Epic real man whose exploits were exaggerated until they were fiction - he and his wife took refuge in an ark when the gods destroyed the world in a flood - sought the secret of immortality, found the flower, left it unguarded, snake at it
Hittites - originated from Central Asia and spoke an Indo-European tongue - occupied most of modern day Turkey (Anatolia), Syria, Lebanon, and extended to the Euphrates river - attacks from the “Sea Peoples” around 1185 BC ultimately destroyed the Hittites power
Assyrians - only ruled over Sumer and Akkad for about eight years - did not have enough resources to maintain the costly occupation - It only took two years to destroy
Sennacherib (d. 681) - his reign displayed the Assyrians at their most magnificent and their most frightful - built new capital Nineveh on the upper banks of the Tigris - vast library of practical knowledge and religious lore - celebrated war and slaughter
New Babylon Chaldeans were left as master of Mesopotamia and located their capital in Babylon
Nebuchadnezar (r. 605-562 BC) ruler of New Babylon - built both the Ishtar Gate and the Hanging Gardens (one of the seven wonders of the world) - greatest in the realm of astronomy - Babylon remains a term for the essence of sinfulness for Christians
Created by: burdeshawgirl