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World History

Harummadi's Code 1st set of written collected laws, used to unify Hammurabi's people
Polytheism Worshiping more than one god - Most early civilizations worshiped more than one.
Monotheism Belief and worshiping of one god
Cuneiform Writing style created in Mesopotamia, used clay and stylus reed - written by a scribe.
Theocracy Religion based government leader.
Role of the pharaoh in Ancient Egypt Egypt's Pharaoh was considered a god and ruler.
Judaism/ Hebrews Monotheistic religion, founded by Abraham, worshiped Yahweh, believed in afterlife judgement (Heaven and Hell)
Torah Written history of the Jewish/Hebrew People
Ten commandments Jewish/Hebrew laws believers are supposed to follow - as foundation for law and social
Zoroastrianism Monotheism religion, god is Ahura Mazda, believed in afterlife judgement.
Cultural Diffusion Blending of cultures, usually through trade/interaction, religion, etc.
Phoenicians Best sailors in Mediterranean Sea, creating a trading empire and an alphabet.
Hinduism Religion of multiple beliefs blended together, many gods, caste system is based on a person's level of reincarnation (being reborn)
Buddhism Created by Siddhartha Gautama, no god, combination of traditions, beliefs and practices - peace to all beings
Confucianism Chinese philosopher, created a system of exams, system of filial piety (family first)
Examination System Confucius created a system of schools and exams to make sure people applying jobs have the necessary skills for a job and are qualified
Mandate of Heaven Chinese beliefs that Heaven dictates why things happen (Emperor explains/justifies why country is invaded because the heaven aren't happy)
Filial Piety Family is the center of society in China
Status of peasants and merchants China's people are set upon a pyramid of status - peasants and merchants are at the bottom of society
Origins and Structure of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire Best Roman Law - Innocent until proven guilty, citizens were allowed to participate in the Republic and not the Empire
Plato Student of Socrates, believed in a perfect society, rulers are democratic but have all authority
Alexander the Great Conquered Greece, Egypt, Persia, India - created the blended culture Hellenistic (spread culture and knowledge w/conquering
Julius Caesar Military general, conquered Gaul, member of 1st Triumvirate, became dictator, many reforms, ASSASSINATED
Augustus Caesar Julius' adopted son, hunted down Julius' killers, member of 2nd Triumvirate, became dictator for life, many reforms.
Accomplishments of Hellenism Blending of cultures from Greek P.I.E., caused great cities such as Alexandria, Egypt, large amounts of trade, commerce, museums, etc.
Accomplishments of Roman Culture Legacy: Written law, Architecture, engineering, language, spreading Hellenistic culture
Polytheism in the Greece and Rome Worshiping gods was required for everyday life to be successful, taboo if you didn't worship. Gods had people characteristics.
Christianity Founded by Jesus Christ, monotheistic, accepted all, promised personal relationship, establishes a powerful following/church/influential leaders
Socrates Greek philosopher, believed in questioning society, executed for corrupting youth of Athens
Impact of Mediterranean Trade Mediterranean trade expanded by the Phoenicians, Minoans, etc. spreads colors
Tigris And Euphrates Rivers Earliest civilizations developed in the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates creating Mesopotamia.
Mesopotamia Society Located in the Middle East earliest civilization developed among the Tigris and Euphrates rives. Polytheistic, system of writing cuneiform.
Origins And structure of Greek Polis Greek governments and societies were based on location. Multiple kinds of governments (monarch, oligarchy, aristocracy, direct democracy.
Aristotle Greek philosopher, student of Plato, questioned the natural world, humanity, and knowledge, the steps to the scientific method
Power of the Catholic Church Pope is the head of the church, a hierarchy of leaders below him. Influenced kings and had power of excommunication and interdict.
Byzantine Empire Eastern half of the Roman Empire that didn't fall, successful wealthy and Greek, Christian Church survives as Orthodox and continues Roman culture
Justinian & Justinian Code Emperor of Byzantine Empire, continues Roman culture, and recaptures the Western half of the Roman empire. Created law system using Roman laws, built Hagia Sophia
Theodora Wife of Justinian , Empress, adviser to Justinian, gave women rights
Constantinople Capital of Byzantine Empire, city that connects Mediterranean Sea and Kiev, Russia. Brings Roman culture, style of leadership Caesar (tsar/czar), Christian(Orthodox) Church, major trading city
Czar Ivan III Took title of Caesar (tsar/czar), connecting Russia to Roman Empire roots,"Third Rome", freed Russia of the Mongols
Great Schism Splitting of the Christian Church (Catholic and Orthodox), Pope and Patriach fought over who controlled what areas of the church
Mongol Empire Covered most of Asia, 4 Kingdoms (Khanate of the Golden Horde, Ilkhanate, Chagatai Khanate, And Khanate of the Great Khan).
Genghis Khan Universal Ruler, United all the Mongols clans, organized, good strategist, terrifying
Impact of the Mongols on Russia Tolerant in Peace, ferocious in war, rarely imposed their beliefs, adopted aspects of culture.
Marco Polo Traveled to China on Silk Roads caravan, worked for Kublai - sent on government mission for several years
Islam Religion founded by Muhammad, Believed in Allah, encouraged education, Qur'an is the Holy Book, increased growth of land empire
5 Pillars of Islam Beliefs system, or major duties of a Muslim (faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, Pilgrimage)
Muhammad Founder of Islam
Sunni & Shia split Muhammad dies, didn't choose next successor (caliph), argued who should be next, fought and split the religion
Ibn-Sina Muslim physician, traveled and studied other cultures medical techniques, combined best methods and wrote a book
Ibn-Battuta Muslim traveler, went from Africa, Europe, and Asia, worked for many leaders, learned of several cultures, empires
Zhou Dynasty Overthrew the Shang, established the dynastic cycle, and feudalism, improved technology and trade, time of "warring states"
Qin Dynasty Shi Huandgdi emperor to overthrow Zhou, cruel leader - used censorship and Legalism
Ottoman Empire's role in the fall of Byzantine Empire Ottoman Turks invaded Byzantine Empire and capital Constantinople. Constantly fought with Christians over the city and Holy Land
Muslim trade Crusades increased trade between Europe and Islamic World because of knowledge of new items from new parts of the world
Crusades Muslim Turks invaded Constantinople and Christians Europe was asked to come save them. Pope encourage people to go, some return but gain very little - Pope's power falls and Kings power increases
Relationship between Judaism, Christianity, & Islam Each religion believes in one god, an afterlife (heaven and Hell), judgement, law system, all include a "Holy Book"
People of the Book Jews and Christians are considered "People of the Book" by Muslims because they all have a holy book.
Ottoman Empire - Suleyman the Magnificient Great law maker, used foreign opinion on improving leadership, created a massive empire during time of ruling, Muslim Empire
Muslim Empires Trade allowed for new ideas to flow, religious culture to spread, and the usage of architecture showing a blending of cultures
Safavid Empire Extended by the leadership of Shah Abbas I
Mughal Empire Indian Empire established by Babur, Akbar will bring the people of India together by combining Hinduism and Muslim in politics and society
Middle Ages - Medieval Times Time of the Dark ages, after the great empires of Rome and Greece caused by lack of increased knowledge due invasions, disease, etc.
Manor System People moved away from the cities to the country, people to agreed to give up rights and freedoms to work on landlords land and be provided safety and housing
Feudalism System of land ownership and service. Kings gave land in return for loyalty and service. People without land have no rights or privileges.
Charlemagne Leader of the Franks, unites Europe under one king, will be crowned Holy Roman Emperor because he saved a Pope (connecting church and govt.)
Pope Gregory VII Pope excommunicated Henry IV, argued over lay investitures and who was allowed to use them.
Impact of Christianity Church fully influenced everyone's idea about eternal life and the necessity of following the churches rules. Popes believed they had authority over all things: religion, society, and politics
King Henry IV - Holy Roman Emperor Fought with the Pope over using lay investitures, Henry lost support of his appointed church members and begged for forgiveness
Role of Medieval Church Completely ruled/influenced society, proved care for the people, sickness, food, shelter, safety.
Growth of Town & Cities People moved from manors to cities for better privileges after the plague... business men create business guilds and gain control and power in the cities because the landowners died from the plaque.
Effects of the Bubonic Plaque Plague kills millions of people, the church said to have faith and people still die (church power fades), government doesn't do anything to help, society becomes a free for all
Renaissance "Rebirth" of art and learning, encouraged art, literature, creation of something new - celebrating life and survival of the plague
Rise of Florence Florence rebounded first after Bubonic Plague. Trade, Art and Business increases first in Europe
Machiavelli Author of the Prince, book about leaders who will do anything to gain anything they want - "The end justifies the means"
Medici Family Ruling family in Florence, who rises in power through banking Big supporters of the art movement and architecture
Leonardo da Vinci Renaissance man, he mastered all areas of talent. Known as a painter, sculptor, inventor, scientist (ex. Mona Lisa, Last Supper)
Michelangelo Renaissance man, Mastered many areas
Humanism Studying human potential, increased studying of classical subjects - pushes idea of secular living
Petrach Founder of Humanism, poet who used vernacular
Dante Continued the ideas of Humanism, used vernacular
Erasmus Christian humanist, wrote the Praise of Folly - Concerns the behaviors of daily actions and how inappropriate they are. Encouraged Biblical education for all
Protestant Reformation Challenged the Catholic Church and their behaviors
Martin Luther Founder of the Protestant Reformation, caused many to move away from the Catholic Church
John Calvin Continued the Protestant Reformation, believed in predestination and developed the (theological) Lutheran Church
Counter Reformation The Catholic Church's response to the Protestant Reformation. Reaffirmed the Catholic's ideas and beliefs.
Council of Trent Developed to combat the Protestant Reformation. Reaffirmed the Catholic's ideas and beliefs.
Jesuits Develop the Council of Trent, created by Ignatius Loyola "Society of Jesus", used to spread Catholic religion
Scientific Revolution Observations were discovered to help people explore the world and taught experiments help figure out the real true/correct theories of the world
Impact of the Mongols on China Kublai Khan moved Mongols capital to China, had foreigners come into government positions, increased foreign trade, Pax Mongolica
English Reformation King Henry VIII, caused a change in the church in England (broke away from the Pope). Pope and Henry fought over his desire for a divorce
Ethical Monotheism Belief in one God who guides humanity through religion based principles
Elizabeth I Daughter of Henry VIII, blended the new church in England with Catholic and Protestant practices crating Anglican church
Gutenberg - Printing Press Johann Gutenberg created a moveable block printing press, this allows for information to spread quickly and increases knowledge
Copernicus Developed the Heliocentric theory(sun centered), went against Greek teachings geocentric (earth center)
Kelper Looked at the stars and the world, used math to figure out his Sun is the center of the universe (back Copernicus' theory
Galileo Looked at the world to answer questions and investigated Copernicus' theory - wrote the Starry Night (argued Copernicus is correct). Info was based on observations and experiments
Newton Discovered the theory to universal gravitation force
Bantu Migration "The People" moved from south of the Sahara to southern tip of Africa. Had knowledge of iron smelting, used slash-burn farming, moved and adopted new techniques (blended cultures)
Ghana Gold-salt trade empire in West Africa
Mali Gold-salt trade empire in West Africa, created and developed by Sundiata (Mali's 1st great emperor), becomes a Muslim nation.
Songhai Gold-salt trade empire in West Africa
Sundiata Mali's 1st great emperor, helped develop gold-salt trade and agriculture
Mansa Musa to Mecca Lion King of Mali, doubled the size of Mali(established trade city Timbuktu). Devote Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca - people know of Mali's greatness and he also created an increase in learning.
Trans-Saharan trade Gold, salt, and slaves - 3 most important trade items (Muslim traders traded with converted Muslim kings in Mali and Ghana)
Swahili Trade cities on the east coast of Africa. Language developed by Arabic traders and Bantu spearkers
Olmec Unknown rise and fall, polytheistic worshiped the jaguar
Mayan Influenced by the Olmecs, King related to gods, polytheistic, developed a writing system and calender using the stars and math
Aztec Polytheistic Sun King (use prisoners as human sacrifice), traded items up and down Mexico on a barter system, conquered many enemies - will fall to the Spanish invaders
Inca Polytheistic, developed in Chile, used a system of bartering. Will be conquered by the Spanish invaders
Age of Discovery/Exploration Inspired by the Age of Reason, looked to the world to answer questions from observations and experiments
3 Gs : Gold, God, Glory Gold: Become rich for self and nation God: Spreading the idea of Christianity Glory: To become famous
3 Ds: Death, Destruction, Domination Death:Brought lots of diseases to new people Destruction: Destroyed many tribes Domination: Enslaved and Colonized
Zheng He Muslim Chinese explorer, traveled 7 times to India and SE Asia, he created trading cities
Conquistador Spanish conquerors in Mexico and other places during the 16th century
Explorers A person who investigates unknown regions from Europe and Asia
Christopher Columbus Discovered new regions in the Caribbean, created new areas for colonization and trade
Maurya Empire Established by Chandragupta Maurya, unifies north India, created a bureaucratic government - poor leadership will result in the downfall
Gupta "Golden Empire" Founded by Chandra Gupta, builds a massive empire - creates an empire filled with art, trade, religious, and scientific reason
Emperor Asoka Practiced Buddhism, the "Elephant King", developed new policies, treated people fairly, road system to improve communication and trade
Diffusion of Asia Culturally people move through out Asia, diversifying people and traditions in Japan, Korea, and S.E. Asia.
Impact of Geography in India Extensive difficult geography keeps Indian people from traveling safely, keeping cultures, trade tradition to themselves
African Syncretism Blending of African beliefs of Animism, Islam, and Christianity
Classic Greeks and Romans Greeks and Romans have different societies based on different locations. Government developed by the ruling groups/leaders. Polytheistic
Vasco da Gama Explored a passage around the south tip of Africa, creating open cities for trade in Africa and India.
Ferdinand Magellan First to circumnavigate the globe
James Cook Discovered parts of New Zealand and Australia, created colonies for his countries
Samuel de Champlain Founded new ways through the Hudson River, developed colonies for his country such as New France
Columbian Exchange Transfer of people and goods from Europe, Africa, and Asia to the newly discovered lands, establishes mercantilism, both and negative effects
Improved Technology Astrolabe is a new instrument to help acquire longitude and latitude
Tokugawa Ieyasu Unified Japan because of help from Nobunga, improved society, absolute ruler who want to have all the power
Oda Nobunga Attempted to take over all daimyo's in Japan, failed and commited suicide
Qing Rulers Attempted to improved the conditions of the lives of the Chinese, Kangxi emperor worked on better taxes and laws
Kangxi Attempted to improve the conditions of the lives of the Chinese, Kangxi emperor worked on better taxes and laws
Population growth Japan Living conditions improved, population increases - necessary for social status to be clear ( levels of pyramid)
Enlightenment Age of Reason, people use thought to figure out social, political, government, religious issues. INSPIRES REVOLUTION
John Locke Philosopher, believed people are good, and all should have natural rights
Voltaire Philosopher who believed all should have the right to free speech and religion
Montesquieu Philosopher who studied different kinds of governments, believed separating government powers is best - liked absolute monarchy most
Rousseua Wrote "The Social Contract", believed the only good government was one freely formed - direct democracy
Absolutism Monarch/leaders believed in having complete/unlimited control - leader should have all power
Louis XIV Absolute ruler of France, enforced heavy unequal taxes, participated in massive spending, required specific religious following - should have all power
Czar Peter the Great Absolute ruler of Russia, forced reforms in Russia, believed in having complete control
English Revolution English people require king to follow the laws, king broke the laws - parliament tries to arrest king. Civil war happens, king captured and executed
American Revolution Colonists disagreed with treatment from Britain, declared independence. Colonist gain independence from Britain
Haitian Revolution Haiti attempts to gain independence from France, while France has issues with Spain. Toussaint L'Ouverture leads rebellion, will be captured but inspires the fight and wins.
Latin American Revolution Successful revolutions around Central and North America inspire revolutions against Spain.
Napoleon Military soldier rises in power, performs a coup, conquerors many neighboring countries and creates puppet states. Eventually, outnumbered and overpowered.
Opium War Chinese rebellion with foreigners living in China and abusing the laws/foreign trade. Foreigners win and gain trading rights.
Taiping Rebellion Chinese rebellion trying to get rid of foreigners and extraterritorial rights.
Commodore Perry Messenger for United States, asking to have trading ports in Japan. Fought with Japan and won - winning open trading ports in Japan.
French Revolution People in France demanding equality of the 3 estates. King and queen will be overthrown, creates many different governments. Napoleon takes over at the end.
Impact of Industrialization Movement from hand made goods to machine produced goods. People move to cities and creates urbanization. Improvement in living conditions, society splits further into "Have and Have Nots"
Nationalism Pride in one's country/loyalty, inspires revolutions, conservatives are against it
Imperialism Policy where stronger countries dominate weaker ones (politically, economically, socially). Europe and USA will go into Asia, Africa, and S. America for land, power resources = wars, ect.
Adam Smith Believed in Laissez-faire. (Uncontrolled market)
Karl Marx Writer of communist Manifest, believed society and business were split between "Have and Have Nots" and needs to balance.
Urbanization Growth of cities and the migration of people to them, happens during Industrial Rev.
Women's Rights Movement Movement increased during Industrial Rev.,equal rights, education, voting, pay, ect.
Otto von Bismark Creator of a unified German people, created alliances, manipulated wars to gain land
Emperor Meiji Emperor Mutsuhito in Japan, pride and nationalism, modernizes Japan to deal with foreigners in Japan - improves the military
Reaction to Foreign Domination Countries mostly modernize to keep up with foreign powers, improve military's, industrialize, change ruling constitutions.
Economic Imperialism Purpose of Imperialism is to dominate other countries to gain free labor, resources to improve stronger countries power status
Protectorates Imperialism allowed for countries to control and protect another
Colonies Land controlled by another country, domination of land, resources government, economy
Sphere of Influence Foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities
Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905 conflict, fought over Manchuria and Korea - Japan wins
Young Turks Political reform movement in early 1900s, didn't like having an absolute Ottoman monarch, wanted a constitutional monarch
Boxer Rebellion 1900 rebellion in China, aimed at ending foreign influence in the country
British Policies in Africa Complete domination, believed in-direct control and usage of resources in colonies
French Policies in Indochina Forced trade, forced exportation goods, used assimilation forced French culture
Japanese Policies in Asia Extreme domination, force conformity, harsh leadership, Asia for the Asians
WWI Conflict between Austria-Hungrary and Serbia because of alliances several other countries will join war. Assassination of Archduke Franze Ferdinand from Austria in Serbia. Split between Central and Allies Powers - Allies will win
M.A.I.N - WWI Militarism - Military becomes influenced power in competitive governments Alliances- Secret alliances will draw many countries into conflict Imperialism-Countries competing to be strongest country of land domination Nationalism-Pride in one's country
Central Powers Austria-Hungary and Germany, major powers in the center of Europe fought together versus Allies
Allied Powers Russia, France, Britain, and US fought together versus Central Powers
Trench Warfare New style of warfare, used to try and prevent many from being killed by deadly machine guns, caused stalemates
New Weapons and Technology First mechanized war: cars, airplanes, machine guns, tanks, submarines, ect. = high deaths
Total War The entire country becomes involved the war effort
Battle of Verdun Battle on western front, Germans advanced 4 miles, one of the longest and costly battles.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Germans will attack all ships. Not supposed to attack civ. ships. Attempts to hurt Britain before U.S. joins the war.
Lusitania British civilian ship attacked by German sub, killed 128 Americans. Germans claimed ship carried ammunition
Zimmerman Note British intercept message from Germany to Mexico. Germany asks Mexico to attack U.S. to keep them out of war in Europe. U.S. declares war on Germany
Woodrow Wilson President of U.S.,creator of 14 points. Plans to help prevent future wars.
Treaty of Versailles Peace meeting for WWI. Germany is blamed for the war. Britain and France want to make Germany pay, be weakened, etc. Major powers left out several countries causing anger and frustration.
German Reparations Germany must pay $33 billions to winners of war
Mandate System Allies would govern the mandates until judged ready for independence
Collapse of Romanov and Habsburg Empires Destabilization countries at the end of WWI. Romanov family overthrown by the Bolsheviks. Habsburg royal family in Germany and Austria. Habsburg lost power with lose in WWI.
Albert Einstein Creates theory relativity, physicist from Germany
Sigmund Freud Austrian physician treated psychological problems - theories about the human mind
Pablo Picasso Founded Cubism art, considered beyond reality - paintings like Guernica spoke of harsh realities
Russian Revolution Russian people are fed up with Romanov leadership, rebel and overthrow the czar. Led by Lenin,created Communist government
Bolsheviks Group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government Nov. 1917
Lenin Leader of the Bolsheviks, gave land to peasants, control of factories to workers, created New Economic Policy and Central gov. - with local self governing republics.
Stalin-5 Yr. Plan Joseph Stalin replaces Lenin, creates economic plans to improve industry and modernization.
Fascism - Italy Political movement that promotes an extreme form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and a dictatorial one-party rule.
Benito Mussolini Leader of Fascism in Italy, rose to power legally but made sure any opposition was gotten rid of by his Black Shirts force.
Adolf Hitler Leader of Nazism in Germany, rose to power legally but used his brown shirt forces to get rid of/intimidate opposition. Blamed Jews for problems
Emperor Hirohito Leader of Japan, influenced by military leaders. Encouraged to gain foreign land in China, Korea, and Manchuria
Sun Yat Sen - Unified China Chinese revolutionary, first president and founder of Republic China - encouraged nationalism, democracy, economy
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Led Turkish nationalist against Greece. Kemal became president of Republic of Turkey, created nationalism/many reforms
Mohandas Gandhi Strive for India to gain independence from Britain. Encouraged reform, civil disobedience, boycotts, strikes, etc.
Totalitarianism Police state used in Russia, Germany, Italy and total control, included censorship, secret police, forced nationalism, no religion
German Aggression/Anger German leaders failed to defend Germany at peace talks in Versailles, many resentful, angered, wanting revenge-led to WWII
Italian Invasion Ethiopia Mussolini wanted to acquire land, revenge for lost in 1890s. Massive invasion - Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie asked league of Nations for help - fined Italy
Spanish Civil War Fascist Fransico Franco fought the new republic, creating a civil war. Hitler & Mussolini send weapons & troops to help Franco. Franco wins and becomes Dictator
Rape of Nanjing Japan created issue to cause conflict between Japan & China. Japan destroys Nanjing & murders thousands of people
Germany and Sudetenland German nation desires all German people to live together, Hitler invades Sudentenland
Pearl Harbor Japan bombs U.S. military base in Hawaii. Causing the U.S. to declare war on Japan, and join WWII
Battle of El-Alamein Turning point for the British in Africa, pushing back the German troops & beaten
Battle of Stalingrad Germans will control 90% of city, but soviets will surround city and starve out Germans
D-Day Land, air, sea invasion of France from unified forces of Allies. Leads to regaining France from the Germans & makes Germans retreat.
Guadalcanal Allied troops drove Japanese forces from the Pacific Island of Guadalcanal - massive deaths
Philippines Japanese will march south to take control of all foreign military bases. Capture prisoners.
Atomic Bombs President Truman decides to use atomic bomb on Nagasaki & Hiroshima - is used to end the war the fastest way possible
Nazism Fascists policies of the National Socialist German Workers' party, based on totalitarianism extreme nationalism, state controlled industry, superior race - blames Jews for Germany problems
Winston Churchill Prime minister of Great Britain, leader during WWII
Roosevelt & Truman Pres. Roosevelt during beginning of WWII Truman - end of WWII
Teheran, Yalta, & Potsdam Meetings to discuss the end of WWII & how to fix Europe's problems
WWII Surrenders Italy surrenders: big loses, leader killed Germany surrenders: big losses & Hitler suicides Japan Surrenders: Atomic bombs, big losses
United Nations International peacekeeping organization founded in 1945 to provide security to the nations of the world
Marshall Plan U.S. program of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after WWII
MacArthur's Plan for Japan Determined to be fair, demilitarization, democratization = new constitution
Cold War Diplomatic hostility between the U.S. and the Soviet Union in the decades following WWII
Revolutionary Movements to India Post WWII, Britain gave up power over India. Muslims and Hindus clashed over how to divide and equal rule in the government. India became the world's largest democracy.
Mao Zedong Inspired by Russian Communist Revolution, He becomes leader of Communists party in China. Fought against Nationalists and makes many reforms as leader.
Chiang Kai-shak Chairman of the National Government of China, leader of the Republic of China. Fought against Communist Mao Zedong but united with Mao to fight against invading Japan
Kwame Nkrumah First president of Ghana. Helped fight for independence
Formation of Israel 1947 - created for displaced Jewish persons after WWII. Area chosen because of past Jewish history
Arab-Israeli Conflict Palestine's land was taken and given to Jewish followers and violence erupted between Arabs and Jews
Hydrogen Bomb Created in 1951 by Edward Teller, this thermonuclear weapon gave the U.S. the advantage in the nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union.
SALT Strategic arms litigation talks between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. It limited the number of missiles allowed, 33 other nations joined
Khrushchev Leader of Soviet Union after Stalin. Started desalinization
Gorbachev The last Pres. of the Soviet Union before the fall of communism. Glasnost and Perestroika leads to dissolution of the Soviet Union
Anti-apartheid Movement in South Africa, to rid country of complete legal separation of the races, including banning of all social classes
Tiananmen Square The site of a student uprising in China 1989. in support of democratic reforms
Fall of Berlin Wall Cities across East Germany rebelled & demanded rights to travel freely & other basic freedoms - Communism fell & allows for Berlin Wall to no longer exists
Pan-Africanism Ideology & movement to solidify Africans wordwide
Pan-Arabism Ideology of unifying countries in North & West Africa from Atlantic Ocean & the Arabian Sea - connected to Arab nationalism
Bosnia-Herzegovina Break-up of Yugoslavia, B-H was formed & declared independence in 1992 contained different religious groups
Rwandan Genocide Fighting between Hutus & Tutsis, Hutus massacred 500,000 Tutsis
Terrorism The use of force or threats to frighten people or governments to change their policies
Shining Path Communist Party of Peru, founded 1970, use terror & violence to those with opposing ideas
Red Brigade Paramilitary organization from Italy, Numerous killings, kidnaps, & robberies & wanted to remove Italy from NATO
Hamas Palestinian Islamic organization, military wing & terrorist organization wants to liberate Palestine
Al-Qaeda Islamic terrorist extremist organization, founded by Osama bin Laden attacks any who oppose Islam
Impact of Terrorism Movement of people away from attacked areas, fear of foreigners & Middle Eastern religious followers - harmed economies, travel, politics in the Middle East, etc.
Female Leaders Golda Meir: voted into power, 4th Prime Minister of Israel Indira Gandhi: Voted into power, 3rd Prime Minister of India - assassinated Margaret Thatch: voted into power, Prime Minister of England
OPEC International Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries - secure & coordinate policies of Oil
World Trade Organization Developed because of globalization - created to deal with global rules of trade between nations
Created by: jacobking2018