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World History

Semester 2 Study Guide

Middle Ages era in European history that followed the fall of the roman Empire, from 500-1500. Also called medieval period.
The Franks are Germanic people who settled in the Roman province of Gaul and established a great empire during the Middle Ages
Monasteries religious community of men who have given up their possessions to devote themselves to a life of prayer and worship
Secular concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
Charlemagne (also knows as Charles the Great) was ruled the Frankish kingdom after his dad, Pepin the Short, died.
Charlemagne's empire fell apart because upon his death, his kingdom fell
Pepin the Short greatest leader of the Frankish kingdom
Papal States were territories in the Italian peninsula
Vikings (also known as Northmen or Norsemen) were warriors mostly but were also traders, farmers, and explorers
The English called the Vikings Deands
The Europeans called the Vikings Northmen
Feudalism political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that belonged to their king
Feudalism developed because the king needed the nobles loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
Lord a person who controlled land and cold therefore grant estates to vassals
Vassal a person who received a grant of land from a lord in exchange for a pledge of loyalty and services
Fief an estate granted to a vassal by a lord under the feudal system
Knights an armored warrior who fought on horseback
Serfs a medieval peasant legally bound to live on a lord's estate
Manor lord's estate in feudal Europe
The obligations of the Vassals are shuttle service between vassals and lords
Tithe a family's payment of one-tenth of its income to a church
Chivalry a code of behavior for knight's in medieval Europe, stressing ideals such as courage, loyalty, and devotion
Page knight's attendant, learned manners
Squire knight's assistant, accompanies a knight into battle
Tournaments a mock battle between groups of knights
Troubadours medieval poet and musician who traveled from place to place, entertaining people with songs of courtly love
Clergy body of officials who perform religious services like priest, minister or rabbi
Sacraments one of the Christian ceremonies in which God's grace is transmitted to people
Canon Law body of laws governing the religious practices of a Christian church
Excommunication the taking away of a person's right of membership in a Christian church
Interdict an ecclesiastical censure that excludes from certain rites of the church
Lay investiture the appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles
Simony the selling or buying of a position in a Christian church
Gothic relating to a style of church architecture that developed in medieval Europe, featuring ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, flying buttresses, pointed arches, and tall spires.
Crusades one of the expeditions of medieval Christian warriors
The purpose of the Crusades was to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims
The Crusades were against the Muslims
Inquisition Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy, specifically the one in Spain in the 1400's
Crusade results were they kept failing to get the Holy land,. Kings power is increased and the church powers increase also. Trade increased.
Military advances that came from the Crusades? the military improvements , crossbow, carrier, catapult
Other changes because of the Crusades? relations with the Muslim leadership worsened for Jews in Europe. the Crusades led to the growth of trade, towns, and universities in medieval Europe.
Usury the lending or practice of lending money at an exorbitant interest
Guild medieval association of people working at the same occupation , which controlled its members wages and prices
Merchant Guild create monopolies, keep prices and quality high
Craft Guild skilled artisans regulate wages, working conditions, set procedures for training new members
Apprentice work for a master to learn trade. Parents pay for training for 2-7 years, live with a master,
Journeyman work for a master to learn a trade. Work for a master to earn a salary. Work 6 days a week. Needs to product a masterpiece to become a master
Commercial Revolution the expansion of trade and business that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries
Vernacular Language the everyday language of their homeland
Dante Author of Divine Comedy
Chaucer Author of the Canterbury Tales
Where were the four great universities? 1) Paris 2) Bologna, Italy 3) Oxford 4) Slaveno???
Scholastics scholars who gathered and taught at medieval European universities
Common Law unified body of law formed from rulings of England's royal judges that serves as the basis for law in many English-speaking countries today, including the US
Magna Carta "Great Charter" , a document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John in AD 1215
Parliament body of representatives that makes laws for a nation
Great Schism division in the medieval Roman Catholic Church, during which rival popes were established in Avignon and in Rome
How did the Bubonic Plague reach Europe? it started in Asia, spread to Italy and the rest of Europe
What did the Bubonic Plague do to the population of Europe? population decreases, trade declines, prices increase, and church status weakens
Name two new weapons that were used for the first time in the 100 Years' War? 1) Long Bow 2) Cross Bow
Joan of Arc French peasant girl who hears in visions of saints
Renaissance period of European history, lasting from about 1300 to 1600, during which renewed interest in classical culture led to far-reaching changes in art, learning, and views of the world.
Humanism Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
Secular concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
Patrons person who supports artists, especially financially
Perspective artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface
Leonardo da Vinci painter, sculptor, inventor, and a scientist
Michelangelo painter, sculptor, architect, and post
Johann Gutenberg developed the first printing press
William Shakespeare people regarded him as the greatest playwright of all time
Thomas More wrote a book called Utopia about a place that had no war or fighting
Utopia imaginary land described by Thomas More in his book, utopia-- an ideal place
Machiavelli author who wrote The Prince to help find out about power???
Reformation a 16th century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the pope's authority
Indulgences a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin
The Reformation began in Germany
Martin Luther teacher, taught scripture the University of Wittenburg in the German state of Saxony
Peace of Augsburg 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Protestant member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation
Anglican Church The king wanted to get remarried. he made a law that the king is the leader instead of the pope. He called his new church the Anglican Church
The Anglican Church was formed because the king wanted a divorce and the Catholic church did not allow it
Annul to cancel or set aside
John Calvin taught that salvation was predestined
Predestination the doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved
Theocracy government in which the ruler is viewed as a divine figure, government controlled by religious leaders
Huguenots Calvin's followers
Anabaptists a member of a Protestant group that believed in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian and believed in the separation of church and state
Catholic Reformation movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation
Council of Trent meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers
Compass instrument that describes the directions, invented by the Chinese
Astrolabe a brass circle with carefully adjusted rings marked off in degrees
Prince Henry the Navigator the nations most enthusiastic supporter of exploration
Barolomeu Dias Early Portuguese explorer, explained his motives to serve God and his majesty to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as any man desires to.
Vasco da Gama Portuguese explorer. he began exploring the east African coast
Treaty of Tordesillas Spain and Portugal agreed to honor the line of Demanceattors???
Christopher Columbus is a Genoese sea captain
Christopher Columbus sailed for Spain
Christopher Columbus found the Bahamas in the Caribbean
Amerigo Vespucci Italian explorer traveled along the East coast of South America. he claims that the land a new world. A German mapmaker names the new continent "America" in honor of Amerigo Vespucci
Vasco Nunez de Balboa marched through modern day panama and had became the first European to gaze upon the Pacific Ocean
Ferdinand Magellan led the boldest exploration
Hernando Cortes Spaniard and landed on the shores of Mexico
Conquistadors the Spanish explorers who followed Cortes'
Aztecs Cortes had a group to fight Aztecs
Mestizo a person of mixed Spanish and native American ancestry
Juan Ponce de Leon Spanish explorer. Landed on the coast of modern day Florida and claimed it for Spain
Samuel de Champlain French explorer, sailed up the St. Lawrence with about 32 colonists
New France Quebec, which became the base of France's colonial empire in North America
Jamestown The colonies claims the land theirs and named it in honor of their king
Pilgrims founded a second English colony
Which two countries began the slave trade? 1) Portugal 2) Africa
Triangular Trade the transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in the Americas
Middle Passage the voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies, and later to North and South America, to be sold as slaves; it was the middle leg of the triangular trade
Capitalism economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit
Joint-Stock Company a business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits
Mercantilism an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Favorable Balance of Trade economic situation in which a country sells more goods abroad than it buys from abroad
Absolute Monarch a king or queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society
Divine Right idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God
Edict of Nantes a 1598 declaration in which the French king Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities
Louis XIV most powerful French leader, became king in 1643 after his father died
Louis XIV's other name Sun King
Louis XIV's major accomplishments weakened the power of the nobles and he strengthened France's economic status
Intendants A French government official appointed by the monarch to collect taxes and administer justice
Versailles palace
War of Spanish Succession the long war to keep France and Spain from joining power
Thirty Years' War conflict over religion and territory and for power among European ruling families
Who dominated the first half of the Thirty Years' War? Hapsburgs
Who dominated the second half of the Thirty Years' War? Adolpfus
Hapsburgs one of the most important royal houses of Europe
Peace of Westphalia ended the 30 years war
Boyars land owning noble in Russia
Peter the Great visited western European countries because He was fascinated by the modern tools and machines. He had a passion for ships and the sea.
Westernization adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western countries, specifically the US
Charles I son of James I, took the throne after his death
English Civil War war in 1642-1649 where Puritan supporters o parliament battled supporters of England's monarchy
Oliver Cromwell puritan general and ruler who tolerated all Christians except Catholics
Charles II brother of Charles I, brought back London monarchy, lead to pass by Habeas Corpus
Restoration period of Charles II's rule over England, after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell's government
Habeas Corpus document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal
Glorious Revolution bloodless overthrow of of King James II
William and Mary new rulers of England, vowed to recognize Parliament as their partner in governing
Cabinet group of advisors or ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make government decisions
Geocentric Theory in the Middle Ages, the earth-centered view of the universe in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe
Scientific Revolution a major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500's, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs
Heliocentric Theory the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
Galileo Galilei Italian scientist built on the new theories about Astronomy
Scientific Method a logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypothesis
Isaac Newton English physicist and mathematician who helped to bring together their breakthroughs under a single theory of motion
William Harvey English physician, reveals how the human heart functions
Robert Hooke English natural philosopher architect and mathemetician
Robert Boyle Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor who discovers mathematical relationship between the pressure and volume of gases, knows as Boyle's Law
Enlightenment an 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society
Social Contract the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government
Thomas Hobbes English Philosopher
John Locke philosopher who believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves; people were born with 3 equal natural rights: life, liberty and property
Philosophes a group of social thinkers in France during the Enlightenment
Salons a social gathering of intellectuals and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy women in Paris and other European cities during the Enlightenment
Encyclopedia book that helped spread Enlightenment ideas to educate people all over Europe
Denis Diderot philosophe who developed the encyclopedia
Enlightened Despot one of the 18th century European monarchs who was inspired by Enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of subjects
Catherine the Great other wise know as Catherine II, ruler of Russia
Thomas Jefferson author of the Declaration of Independence, from Virginia
George Washington First US president
Federal System a system of government in which power is divided
Bill of Rights amendments that protected basic rights as freedom of speech, press, assembly and religion
The 3 Branches of Government 1) Judicial Branch 2) Executive Branch 3) Legislative Branch
Judicial Branch interpret and review laws
Legislative Branch makes the laws
Executive Branch carries out the laws
Old Regime is made up of three separate estates: First Estate, Second Estate, and Third Estate
First Estate clergy of Roman Catholic Church; scorned Enlightenment ideas
Second Estate rich nobles; held highest offices in the government, disagreed with Enlightenment ideas
Third Estate bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers, had no power to influence government, embraced Enlightenment ideas; resented the wealthy First and Second Estates
Bourgeoisie The middle class with reference to materialistic values or conventional attitudes
Estates General an assembly of representatives from all three estates to approve this new tax
Declaration of the Rights of Man included Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Religion, and Freedom of Press
Emigre a person who leaves their native country for political reasons, like the nobles and others who fled France during the peasant uprisings of the French Revolution
Jacobins prominent club members
Danton lawyer known for his devotion to the rights of Paris's poor people
Robespierre Jacobin leader who wanted to build a "republic of virtue" by wiping out every trace of France's past
Committee of Public Safety chief task was to protect the Revolution from its enemies.
Conscription compulsory enlightenment for state service, typically into the armed forces
Reign of Terror the period from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Robespierre ruled Franc nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Napoleon short military leader who ruled France in 1799
Coup d' etat a sudden seizure of political power in a nation
Concordat a formal agreement especially drawn up between the pope and a government, dealing with the control of Church affairs
Napoleonic Code comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon
Continental System Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy
Nationalism belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation, the people they share a culture and history instead of to a ,king or empire
Scorched Earth Policy practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land
What happened to Napoleon in Russia? he surrendered because his troops wanted to stop fighting
What happened to Napoleon at Waterloo? He was exiled to an island
4 principles of Congress of Vienna 1) Legitimacy 2) Balance of Power 3) Weaken France 4) compensation
Legitimacy the hereditary right of a monarch to rule
Reactionaries A revolutionary person
Created by: Pechacek