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Final World Civ. II

Study Guide for World Civilizations pt. 2

QuestionAnswer
What is a Primary Source? A person who lived during the event speaking about or participating while the event is happening
What is a Secondary Source? Someone who might have been alive during the period but did not live the event
What were some of the effects of the Great War? It affected technology and management by producing new inventions and techniques through the encouragement of wartime governments
What was the Great War? World War I
Within two years of the Great War, what did the losing European governments transform into? Constitutional republics in which the people had supreme authority
Who was Mustafa Kemal? The "architect" and "father" ("Ataturk") of the Turkish Republic
What took the place of the Ottoman Empire? The Turkish Republic
Why did Mohandas Gandhi encourage Indians to spin and weave their own cloth? Swadeshi.
What is Swadeshi? Self-sufficiency of the community
Who were the Axis alliance in World War II? Germany, Italy, and Japan
Why did Hitler engage in conquests? To secure "living space" in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union
Who was Felix Eboue? The wartime governor of Chad who declared his loyalty to the Free French rather than the Vichy Government
What was the purpose of Mao's Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution? To mobilize the Red Guards to cleanse China of bourgeois values, foreign influences, and ideological impurities
What did Mao Zedong believe should be the basis of the communist revolution? peasants
What did Rachel Carson, author of Silent Spring, warn her readers about? DDT and other pesticides that killed animal life.
Who established the policy of Apartheid in South Africa? The National Party
What is Apartheid? Racial segregation
Who were the "Asian Tigers"? A group of nations who build strong economies around making high-quality goods for export; included Taiwan
How did China change under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping? It reformed its economy by allowing farmers, local businesses, and large businesses to buy and sell goods privately; fourteen coastal cities were opened to foreign investment
Which movement overthrew long standing governments in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya? The Arab Spring popular movements of 2011 and 2012
Why were cities safer places to live by the time of World War I? Advances in public health
Why did immigration to the United States decline in the 1920s? Strict immigration quotas
What was sparked by government support for solutions to military and industrial problems during the Great War? New inventions and mass production techniques
Who was Albert Einstein? A German physicist who demonstrated mathematically that there was no single spatial and chronological framework within the universe
For what purpose did Austrian physician Sigmund Freud contend civilization's standards and laws serve? Control base instincts
What is Cubism? The artistic technique whereby the artist disassembles an object and then puts it back together on canvas in jumbled bits and pieces
How did the governments that replaced those that fell during World War I claim legitimacy? As the rightful agents of the "will of the people"
What didn't Stalin's Five Year Plan concern itself with? Producing consumer goods
Who was the chief architect of the new republic that arose from the ruins of the Ottoman empire? Mustafa Ataturk
What did the rising middle class of Latin America resent? old land-owning elite
What was the primary reason colonizers built roads and railways in their African and Asian possessions? The transportation of export commodities
What else did the League of Nations endorse when it assigned Palestine to Britain as a post war mandate? The Balfour Declaration
What did Ho Chi Minh petition for to President Wilson in Paris? The self rule of his home country which was, at the time, under harsh colonial rule by the French
What lead to the radicalization of many Indian nationalists? The Amristar Massacre
How do major industrial states try to halt economic downturn? Balancing the budget
Which was the first nation to try to restart the economy by introducing public works projects financed by government borrowing? Sweden
Who was Jiang Jieshi? President of China, protested the Japanese invasion of Manchuria
Why didn't the League of Nations take military action against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria? The League lacked a mechanism for military action
What was the major factor that motivated Japan to seize territories abroad as it's industrial power grew? oil
What was Mein Kampf? Hitler's semi autobiographical work setting forth his world view
What were the Nuremberg Laws? 1935 laws that began the systematic project to isolate the Jews in Germany
What did Marshall Petain lead? A collaborationist government that administered the southern provinces of France from the small city of Vichy
How did the Soviets protect their industrial plants from German aerial attack? Moved them to Inner Eurasia
Where did the first major engagement between US and Japanese carrier-based planes occur? The Coral Sea
Where was the German advance into the Soviet Union halted? Stalingrad
How did Mao's vision of communism differ from that of most of his comrades? He believed the revolution should be rural-based
Who was Rosie the Riveter? A US embolism for national fortitude and sacrifice in image and song
How did World War II impact the economies in Latin America? Benefited the middle and wealthy classes
What did Chinese communist forces drive from the Chinese mainland and onto the island of Taiwan? The Nationalist government of President Jiang Jieshi
Where was the German capital of Berlin? The Soviet Union's military zone
Why did the American public favor continued international engagement after WWII more so than after WWI? They feared an economic crisis similar to the one that occurred after WWI
How does the UN differ from the League of Nations? The UN had the power to deploy troops; the League of Nations did not
What was the Truman Doctrine? The US policy that supported free people who resisted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures
Who was Jawaharlal Nehru? The English educated lawyer and committed socialist who helped lead the Indian National Congress
Why did the welfare state grow faster in Western Europe than in the US? There was not as much public support in the US
Which country showed the fastest rate of growth in the 1950s? The Soviet Union
Who was Nikita Khrushchev? The Soviet leader who ascended to the top of the Soviet political hierarchy within two years of Stalin's death.
What happened in Mao's China? When the government directly managed the economy, growth waned
How did Mexico quadruple its manufacturing output between 1945 and 1973? An economic ideology called import substitution industrialization
Who kept a tight rein on power but also appealed to the urban masses and labor unions for support? Argentinian president Juan Peron
How did industrial manufacturing in South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore differ from the Latin America model? South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore's Industrial manufacturing was export market focused
At what expense was fast recovery made in Northern Europe via heavy industry? The ecological expense of the Rhine River
What is the significance of the book Silent Spring? Rouse scientific and public consciousness about the environment; written by Rachel Carson
For whom did the UN authorize military intervention on the Korean peninsula? South Koreans
What is the purpose of the strategy known as MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction)? An attempt to defend against nuclear attack
What was the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962? A critical turning point in the projection of Soviet imperial power
What was Zimbabwe known as before it gained its independence? The British dependency of Southern Rhodesia
Why did the Congo fall into civil disarray so quickly after gaining independence from Belgium? The failure of Belgium to prepare the colony for self-rule
What was the outcome of the Six Day War? Israel occupied the Golan Heights
What was another name for the National Liberation Front (NLF)? Viet Cong
Which area is know to have the most severe institutionalized racism? South Africa
Which of the major African nationalist parties were considered more radical? The Pan-African Congress (PAC)
Why did the "baby boomers" flood into college and university between 1964 and 1970? Rising incomes of working parents
Who helped create and market the Apple II computer? Stephen Wozniak
What was the first satellite launched in 1957? Sputnik
Why have serious economic fluctuations in recent years had global impact? National economies are now tightly linked together
Why did OPEC declare an oil embargo against the US in 1973? To place political pressure on Israel to return to occupied territories
Which is know as a "tiger cub" nation? Thailand
What did Deng Xiaoping of the Chinese Communist Party vow to do after nearly three decades of central planning? Revive and modernize the economy
What is Perestroika? Launched by Mikhail Gorbachev, the economic liberalization campaign in the Soviet Union
What was one stipulation of the Maastricht Treaty? The European Economic Community, formed in 1957, changed its name to the European Union in 1992
What has a set of complex rules and institutions for the free movement of goods, capital, and workers among its member states? The European Union
What created the International Monetary Fund? The Bretton Woods system
Why has the number of sovereign states in the world risen so dramatically since World War II? The dismantling of colonial empires
What is d├ętente? A period in the mid-1960s in which the Unites States and Soviet Union entered into a period of improved relations
Which was one of the main ethnic groups involved in the inter-ethnic warfare that occurred after the collapse of the republic of Yugoslavia? Croats
What are the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council? Great Britain, the US, Russia, China, and France
Why did the UN adopt the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948? In response to the atrocities committed during World War II
How did al-Qaida first appear? As a guerrilla organization fighting Afghanistan's Soviet occupiers
Which is a state notable for its support of terrorist groups? Libya
Which was among the first nations to establish full diplomatic relations with Israel? Egypt
In post-WWII years, political and economic leaders nearly everywhere believed what? Sustained and accelerated economic growth would ultimately make life better for all
Created by: lgns