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APHG test study

Unit 7

TermDefinition
Agglomeration The action or process of regions or areas collecting in mass usually for certain advantages
Barriadas Another name for squatter settlements that are residential developments that take place on land that is neither owned nor is rented by its occupants
Bid-rent theory A geographical economic theory to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the CBD increases
Blockbusting A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood
CBD(central business district) The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
Census tract An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published
Centrality The functional dominance of cities within an urban system
Centralization The movement of people,services and port in the central city.
Central-place theory The distribution of services based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market area for services. Larger settlements are fewer & farther apart than smaller settlements & provide services for a large number of people with a larger range.
Walter Christaller Created the central place theory which displayed the ideas that central places would provide services and goods to the surrounding areas.
City/Cityscapes Conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics /A city's landscape
Colonial city Compared to older cities , colonial cities typically contain wider streets and public squares, lager houses, surrounded by gardens, and much lower density
Commercialization The transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity
Commuter Zone The fifth ring in the concentric zone model that is beyond the continuous built-up area of the city
Concentric zone model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Counterurbanization Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
Decentralization The tendency of people or businesses and industry to locate outside the central city
Deindustrialization A process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industry in a country or region
Early cities Cities of the ancient world
Economic base(basic/nonbasic) Businesses that generate employment in a community or a geographical area.
Edge city A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
Emerging cities City currently without much population but increasing in size at a fast rate
Employment structure How the workforce is divided up between the three main employment sectors - primary, secondary, and tertiary
Entrepot A trading center, or a trading warehouse where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying for import duties, often at a profit.
Ethnic neighborhood A neighborhood in which the people who live in there and share physical, mental, and cultural traits
Favela The Brazilian equivalent of a shanty-town, which are generally found on the edge of the city
Female-headed household A household in which the most powerful person is a female
Festival landscape A landscape of cultural festivities
Gateway city Serves as a link between one country or region and others because of its physical situation.
Gender The social differences between men and women
Gentrification The invasions of older, centrally located working class neighborhoods by higher income households seeking the character and convenience of less expensive and well-located residences
Ghetto During the middle ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure
Globalization Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Great cities A city with a population of more then 1 million
High-tech corridors Corridors made up of thousands of high tech businesses and industries
Hinterland The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services
Hydraulic civilization Any culture having an agricultural system that is dependent upon large-scale government-managed waterworks
Indigenous city a center of population, commerce, and culture that is native to a country
In-filling The use of vacant land and property within a built-up area for further construction or development
Informal structure It is the economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that governments GNP
Infrastructure The fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, such as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools
Inner city Residential neighborhoods that surround the CBD
Invasion and succession A model of change used in urban ecology to represent the effects of immigration on the social structure of an urban area
Lateral commuting Traveling from one suburb to another in going from home to work.
Medieval cities Cites dating back to the 14th century with walls and watch towers.
Megacities A recognized metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million people
Megalopolis/conurbation An area of an adjacent metropolitan ares that overlap
Metropolitan area The county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city
Multiple nuclei model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities
Multiplier effect The expansion of the money supply that results from a Federal Reserve System member bank's ability to lend significantly in excess of its reserves
Neighborhood The area surrounding a particular place, person, or object.
Office park An area where a number of office buildings are built together on landscaped grounds.
Peak land value intersection Is the land within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce
Planned communities Any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed in a previously undeveloped area
Postindustrial city A city in which an economic transition has occurred from a manufacturing based economy to a service based economy
Postmodern urban landscape Attempts to reconnect people to place through its architecture, the preservation of historical buildings, the re-emergence of mixed land uses and connections among developments
Primate city The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second ranking settlement
Racial steering Refers to the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race
Rank-size rule A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
Redlining Process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within boundaries
Restrictive covenants Provision in a property deed preventing sale to a person of a particular race or religion; loan discrimination; ruled unconstitutional
Sector model ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Segregation The separation or isolation of a race, class, or group
Settlement forms nucleated: compact, closely packed settlement sharply decorated from adjoining farmlands; dispersed: characterized by a much lower density of population & the wide spacing of individual homesteads; elongated: state whose territory is long & shaped narrow.
Shopping mall Mercantile establishment consisting of a carefully landscaped complex of shops representing leading merchandisers
Site/situation Site = the physical character of place; what is found at the location and why it is significant Situation = the location of a place relative to other places
Slum A heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and squalor
Social structure Social organization based on established patterns of social interaction between different relationships
Specialization separation of tasks within a system
Squatter settlement An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
Street patterns grid:streets are arranged in a grid-like fashion; dendritic: characterized by fewer streets organized based on the amount of traffic each can carry; access: provides access control: allows highways or housing projects to be supervised
Suburb Residential areas on the outskirts of a city or large town
Suburbanization A term used to describe the growth of areas on the fringes of major cities
Symbolic landscape Landscapes that express the values, beliefs, and meanings of a particular culture.
Tenement An apartment building, especially one meeting minimum standards of sanitation, safety or maintenance up keep.
Created by: Heavenleighallen