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WVSOM Neuroanatomy Overview

What are the four main functions of the nervous system? Receives sensory messages from the environment.Integrates new inputs with information that is already stored. Uses integrated information to send out messages to muscles and glands. It provides the basis for conscious experiences and cognitive abilities.
What is the neuron? basic functional unit of the nervous system
How are neurons grouped? neuronal structure and neuronal function
How are neuronal structure done? by examining the number of processes they exhibit from their somata
Unipolar neuron single process that extends from the soma. NOT found in fully developed humans
What is the structure of a Pseudo-unipolar neuron single process from the soma that immediately divides into two.
What do pseudo-unipolar neurons do? sensory neurons of spinal nerves and all cranial nerves except I, II and VIII
What is the structure of a bi-polar neuron? two processes emerge from soma
Where are bi-polar neurons found? peripheral nervous system and also associated with cranial nerves I, II, and VIII
What is the function of bipolar neurons? sensory. Smell: olfactory mucosa, Vision: retina, Hearing: spiral ganglion and balance: vestibular ganglion
What is the structure of a multipolar neuron? more than two processes emerge from soma.
What is the majority of all neurons? multipolar neurons
What are examples of multipolar neurons? purkinje neurons and pyramidal neurons
What two parts are is the nervous system broken down into? CNS and PNS
What two things is the CNS broken down into? brain and spinal cord
What 3 things is the brain broken down into? forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain
What 2 things is the forebrain broken down into? telencephalon and diencephalon
What 3 things is the telencephalon broken down into? neocortex, hippocampus and internal capsule
What is the diencephalon broken down into? thalamus, epithalamus (pineal gland), subthalmus, 3rd ventricle and hypothalamus
What two parts is the midbrain broken down into? superior colliculus and inferior colliculus
What is the hindbrain broken down into? cerebelleum, pons and medulla
What makes up the brain stem? midbrain, pons and medulla
What is the function of the hippocampus? consolidation of memory
What 2 things can the PNS be divided into? somatic division and autonomic division
What is the function of the telencephalon? it is the most complex brain tissue.
What is the internal capsule? onramp and exit ramp to the cerebral cortex. Just a collection of axons
What does the thalamus do? gatekeeper to the cerebral cortex
What does the hypothalamus do? autonomics and homeostasis
What is the function of the superior Colliculus? vision
What is the function of the inferior colliculus? hearing
What is the function of the cerebellum? balance and coordination of motor activity
What is in grey matter? concentration of somata
What is in white matter? concentration of axons (fibers)
What are the motor nerves of the somatic division? efferent nerves
What are the sensory nerves of the somatic division? afferent nerves
What happens to orientation at the junction of the midbrain and the forbrain? rotates 90 degrees
What does is the term for anterior below the junction? ventral
What does the term inferior mean below the junction? caudal
What does the term for posterior below the junction? dorsal
What is the term for superior below the junction? Rostral
What is the term for superior above the junction? dorsal
What is the term for anterior above the junction? Rostral
What is the term for inferior above the junction? ventral
What is the term for posterior above the junction? Caudal
What divides the brain into left and right halves? longitudal fissure
What are gyrus? ridges
What are grooves? sulcus
What are really large sulci? fissures
What divides the brain into left and right halves? longitudal fissure
What two Sulcus margin off the frontal lobe? Central Sulcus and sylivan fissure
What is the function of the frontal lobe? Higher reasoning and thinking abilities. Helps you not remember what a remote is but what you do with it!
What is the precentral gyrus? just rostral to central suclcus. Initiation of motor
What is the motor area of language? frontal lobe
What forms the boundary of the occipital lobe? parieto-occipital Sulcus and the pre-occipital notch.
What is the function of the occipital lobe? vision
What is the function of the temporal lobe? hearing, language comprehension and memory
What are the traits of the parietal lobe? somato-sensation and association (abstract thinking and pulling information together)
What does the post-central gyrus do? first area of somato-sensation
What is the cingulated gyrus? memory. It is the medial surface of the frontal lobe
What divides the parietal lobe from the occipital lobe? the parieto-occipial sulcus.
What is the calcarine sulcus? primary visual cortex
What is the corpus collosum? bundle of axons that connect the hemispheres
What is the insular cortex? addictive behaviors and emotional drives
What is the forebrain embronologically? prosencephalon
What are the two parts of the prosencephalon? telencephalon and diencephalon
What makes up the mesencephalon? emryological name for the midbrain. Makes up the cerebral peduncles, midgrain tectum and midbrain tegmentum
What is the rhombencephalon? Hindbrain
What forms the pons and cerebellum? metencephalon
What forms the medulla? myelencephalon
What makes up the rhombencephalon? metencephalon and myelencephalon
Decussation crossing the midline
Ipsilateral on the same side
Contralateral on the opposite side
How do you name tracts? The first part of the name is the origin of the tract and the second part of the name is the termination of the tract
What is a locus? collection of cell bodies
What is grey matter? collection of cell bodies
What is a nucleus/nuclei? collection of cell bodies
What is a substantia? collection of cell bodies
What is a ganglion? collection of cell bodies
What is white matter? bundle of axons
What is a capsule? bundle of axons
What is a brachium? bundle of axons
What is a peduncle? bundle of axons
What is a tract? bundle of axons
What is a commissure? bundle of axons
What is a nerve? bundles of axons
Where are astrocytes found? only in the CNS
What are the 5 functions of Astrocytes? physical support, forms scar tissue, removes excess waste, removes neurotransmitter from synapse, and contributes to blood-brain barrier
Where are oligodendrocytes found? CNS, mostly in white matter
What is the function of oligodendrocytes? produce myelin around axons
Where is myelin produced by oligodendrocytes? segments around axons
How many axons can a oligodendrocyte provide myelin for? over 50 axons
Do segments touch each other? no
What is the space between segments called? nodes of ranvier
What is myelin formed from? tight concentric layers of cell membrane wrapped around the axon
What is the function of myelin? insulates the axon and speeds the propagation of an action potential
What is the main constituents of myelin? 70% lipids with some proteins (myelin basic protein)
What is the function of microglia? macrophage; remove damaged tissue thru phagocytosis
Where are microglia? CNS
When are microglia present in larger numbers? when CNS is damaged by influx from blood vessels
What happens after injury in the CNS? microglia remove damaged tissue and then scar tissue is added by astrocytes
What do ependymal cells do? line cavities of the brain and spinal cord to circulate CSF
Where are Schwann cells found? only in the PNS
What are the 4 functions of Schwann Cells? support, acts as macrophage, protects axons, and myelinates the PNS
How many myelin segments can a single Schwann cell provide myelin for? can either myelinate a single axon or engulf several axons without myelinating them
What do Schwann cells provide nerves that Oligodendrocytes don’t? a basement membrane
What do satellite cells do? protects neuronal cell bodies
Created by: tjamrose