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Chapter 23

World History

TermDefinition
What makes up the Old Regime? First Estate, Second Estate, and Third Estate
First Estate includes the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church
First Estate scorned enlightenment ideas
Second Estate includes the rich nobles who held the highest offices in government
Second Estate disagreed about enlightenment ideas
Third Estate had NO power to influence government therefore resented the First and Second Estates
Third Estate embraced Enlightenment ideas
Bourgeoisie the Middle Class, typically with reference to it. They perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes.
Estates General an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates (social classes) in France.
What rights were protected in the Declaration of the Rights of Man? Freedom of Speech, Press, and Religion
Universal manhood suffrage A form of voting rights in which all adult makes within a political system are allowed to vote.
Emigre a person who has left their own country in order to settle in another, usually for a political reason
Constitution of 1791 the National Assembly during French Revolution. It retained the monarchy.
Conservatives A person who is averse to change and holds to traditional values and attitudes
Radicals A person who advocates through or complete political or social reform
Moderates average in amount, intensity, quality, or degree
National Convention a convention of major political party, especially one that nominates a candidate for the presidency
Girondists A member of the French Moderate Republican party during the French Revolution
Jacobins a member of a democratic club established in Paris in 1789
Danton First President of the Committee of Public safety
Robespierre French lawyer and politician
Committee of Public Safety Political body of the French Revolution that gained virtual dictatorial control over France
Conscription compulsory enlistment of state service, typically into the armed forces
Counterrevolution A revolution opposing a former one or reversing its results
Reign of Terror a period of remorseless repression or bloodshed, in particular Reign of Terror, the period of the terror during the French Revolution
Directory a book of directions for the conduct of Christian worship, especially in Presbyterian
Napoleon French military and political leader who rose to prominence
Coup d' etat another term for coup
Concordat an agreement or treaty, especially one between the Vatican and a secular government relating to mutual interest
Napoleonic Code French civil code of laws
Continental System the foreign policy Napoleon I of France in his struggle against Great Britain during the Napoleonic Wars
Peninsular Campaign American civil war was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia
Nationalism Patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts
Scorched-earth Policy a military strategy of burning or destroying buildings, crops, or other resources that might be of use to an invading enemy force.
What happened to Napoleon in Spain and Portugal? Napoleon's soldiers became weaker as they went through Spain and Portugal
What happened to Napoleon in Russia? Napoleon and the French army were defeated by the Russian winter
What happened to Napoleon at Waterloo? Napoleon was sent into exile on St. Helena island.
Congress of Vienna has 4 principles
Congress of Vienna 1) Legitimacy 2) Balance of Power 3) Weaken France 4) Compensation
Legitimacy Restore all former ruling families from France, Spain, Portugal, and Sardinia to their thrones
Reactionaries This group of people want to go back to old days
Quadruple/Quintuple Alliance This group of countries includes: Great Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, and France
Holy Alliance All European rulers except Great Britain, Turkey and the Pope
Liberalism Ideals of individual rights
Created by: Pechacek