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Age of Revolution

flashcards

TermDefinition
Montesquieu Philosopher who proposed in On the Spirit of the Laws that the separation of powers keeps any individual or group from gaining total control of government
Hobbes English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings(1588-1679)
Rousseau French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland; believed that the natural goodness of man was warped by society; ideas influenced the French Revolution
Bourgeoisie The social class between the lower and upper classes
Radical A person who will break the law to make political or social change
Aristocracy Group of noble families
Coup d'e tat The overthrow of a government
Conservative A person who does not want to change the current political or social climate
Social contract People give up their individual sovereignty to state in exchange for peace and order
Guerilla warfare Spanish word for little war; fighting comprised of hit-and-run attacks
Liberal A person who seeks political change by working with-in the law
Enlightenment A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
Enlightened despot Idealized monarch that takes on the ideas of the enlightenment
Napoleonic code A set of laws made in 1804 that guaranteed certain freedoms for the people of France. French law is still based on this code
Proletariat A social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
Nationalism The doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
Commodore perry Naval officer who opened trade with Japan by taking a fleet of warships into Tokyo harbor
Divine right Political theory that a ruler derives his or her power directly from God and is accountable only to God
Voltaire French writer who believed in the freedom of speech and the separation of religion and government
Abdicate Renounce, give up a throne/office formally
Locke Enlightenment thinker who explained that all men have Natural Rights, which are Life, Liberty, and Property, and that the purpose of government was to protect these rights
Estates general Representative body made up of three classes of French society: clergy, nobles, commoners
Limited monarchy A government in which the monarch's power is limited by the law
Opium war Chinese war with Great Britain to rid China of British influence
Revolutionary An extreme supporter of complete political or social change. Often but not always achieved through violence
Natural law Pattern in the behavior of the universe, including laws of motion and gravity; observed during the European Enlightenment by thinkers such as Isaac Newton
Created by: 83celbak