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Chapter 5

Human Anatomy & Phyisiology Review

neuron fundamental unit of the nervous system 2 main structural divisions are: CNS (central nervous system) and PNS (peripheral nervous system)
phalanges bones of the fingers and toes.
distal farthest from center of body
anabolism constructive process in body -how body converts simple compounds to complex substances to carry out cellular activity.
endocrine glands
pituitary gland
prone/pronation pt lying on stomach, face down. -- in phlebotomy, palm face down.
dorsal (posterior) pertaining to the back of the body
anatomic position standing erect, arms at sides, w/ eyes and palms facing forward.
exocrine glands glands that secrete substances thru ducts - oil and sweat glands.
proximal nearest the center of the body, origin, point of attachment
frontal plane
anterior (ventral) located in the front of the body
sagital plane divides body vertically into right and left portions.
gametes Sex cells.
ventral cavities located in the front of the body and include thoracic cavity (heart and lungs), abdominal cavity (stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, spleen, kidneys), pelvic cavity (urinary bladder and reproductive organs).
transverse plane divides body horizontally into upper and lower portions.
synovial fluid colorless fluid contained in the bursa to help ease movement over and around joints.
surfactant substance that coats the walls of the alveoli, lowering the surface tension and helping to keep alveoli inflated.
supine/supination pt lying on back with face up -- in phlebotomy, palm face up.
nephron microscopic functional unit of the kidneys.
mitosis cell duplication that involves DNA doubling and cell division.
metabolism sum of all physical and chemical reactions necessary to sustain life.
meninges 3 layers of connective tissue that enclose and protect the spinal cavity.
hormones powerful chemical substances that have effect on many body processes (metabolism, growth & development, personality, etc)
homeostasis balanced "steady state" condition. body does this by compensating for changes in a process involving feedback and regulation in response to internal/external changes.
hemopoiesis the production of blood cells, normally occuring in the bone marrow.
catabolism ca-tab-o-lism - destructive process by which complex substances are broken down, usually w release of energy.
cartilage type of hard non-vascular connective tissue.
bursae the sac containing synovial fluid. The fluid eases friction between joint parts or tendons and bones.
body plane Imaginary cut thru a body in the anatomical position - can be vertical or horizontal.
body cavities large hollow spaces in the body housing various organs - dorsal and ventral (according to the location in the body).
axons fibers in neurons that carry messages AWAY from the nerve cell body. Dendrites carry message TO it.
avascular contains no blood or lymph vessels. The epidermis is avascular
anterior (ventral) front of the body
Created by: MissSandy