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Chapter 22

World History

QuestionAnswer
Geocentric Theory idea that the earth was a immovable object located at the center of the universe and the moon, sun, and planets revolve around the earth
Scientific Revolution study of the natural world characterized by careful observation and the questioning f accepted beliefs. Their is a new way of viewing nature.
Heliocentric Theory the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
Galileo Galilei he used a telescope to study the sky. He made discoveries about planet surfaces, supports heliocentric theory and made advances in physics
Scientific Method logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experiment action and observation are used to test hypothesis
Rene' Descartes advocates using logic and math to reason out basic truths
Francis Bacon urges scientists to experiment before drawing conclusions
Isaac Newton English scientist that develops laws of motion. Motion in space, earth linked by the law of universal gravitation. Developed calculus.
Andreas Vesalius improved knowledge of anatomy
William Harvey studies the heat and blood circulation
Anton van Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria
Robert Hooke Identify cells in living matter
Robert Boyle argues that matter is made of many different particles. Boyle's law reveals interaction of volume, temperature, gas pressure. Boyle is the founder of Modern Chemistry
Antoine Lavoisier named oxygen. He found that fire is the result of rapid combustion of oxygen with other substances
Enlightenment European movement. Thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society . A movement stressing reason and thought.
Social Contract the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government. Getting order by giving power to monarch
Thomas Hobbes promotes social contract. Getting order by giving power to monarch. he distrusts humans, favors strong government to keep order.
John Locke philosopher who says government gets power from the people; People keep natural rights like the right to live, enjoy liberty, own property. Stresses that people have a right to overthrow an unjust government
Philosophies One of a group of social thinkers in France during the Enlightenment. They value reason, nature, happiness, progress, and liberty
Voltaire influential philosopher. Publishes many works, arguing for tolerance reason. makes powerful enemies and is imprisoned twice for his views
Montesquieu French writer who admires Britain's government system
Rousseau Philosopher who favors individual freedom, direct democracy. views the social contract as an agreement by free people to form government.
Salons A social gathering of intellectuals and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy women in Paris and other European cities during the enlightenment.
What was the encyclopedia? Set of books to which enlightenment thinkers contribute essays
Denis Diderot philosopher Denis Diderot begins publishing the encyclopedia in 1751.
Enlightened Despot Spirit of enlightenment prompts the rise of enlightened desports. Monarchs who embrace enlightenment values to strengthen their rule.
Catherine the Great enlightened ruler of Russia. She seeks to abolish capital punishment and torture. It fails and expands the Russian empire. Gains port access for Russia by seizing northern coast of Black Sea and seizes large part of Poland
Declaration of Independence document justifying Colonial rebellion
Thomas Jefferson writes Declaration and uses ideas of Locke
George Washington the first President of the US
Checks and Balances ensures branches share power
Federal System power divided between nation and states
Bill of Rights ten amendments to the constitution that protects freedoms.
What are the three branches of government? Judicial Executive Legislatures
Judicial Branch interprets laws
Executive Branch enforces laws
Legislative Branch makes laws
Created by: Pechacek