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AP Human Ch. 1 Vocab

Basic Concepts - AP Human Geography, Chapter 1, Rubenstein

Abiotic Composed of nonliving or inorganic matter
Atmosphere The thin layer of gases surrounding Earth
Biosphere All living organisms on Earth, including plants and animals, as well as microorganisms
Biotic Composed of living organisms
Cartography The science of making maps
Climate The long-term average weather condition at a particular location
Concentration The spread of something over a given area (can be clustered or dispersed)
Connection Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
Conservation The sustainable management of a natural resource
Contagious diffusion The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend
Cultural ecology A geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
Cultural landscape A combination of cultural, economic, and physical features that give a region its unified character
Culture The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that constitute a group's distinct tradition
Density The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
Diffusion The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Distance decay The process by which contact decreases and eventually disappears as distance increases. This is much less common in contemporary society because of increased connections and space-time compression.
Distribution The arrangement of something across Earth's surface
Ecology The scientific study of ecosystems
Ecosystem A group of living organisms and the abiotic spheres in which they interact
Environmental determinism The belief that the physical environment causes social development
Expansion diffusion The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in an additive process
Formal region An area in which everyone shares one or more distinctive characteristic (AKA uniform or homogeneous region)
Functional region An area organized around a node or focal point (AKA nodal region)
Geographic information science (GIScience) The development and analysis of data about Earth acquired through satellite and other electronic information technologies
Global Positioning System (GPS) A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers
Globalization Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Greenwich Mean Time The time zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0 degrees longitude
Hierarchical diffusion The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other people or places
Housing bubble A rapid increase in the value of houses followed by a sharp decline in their value. When the housing bubble burst in the USA and Europe in 2008, it caused the first global recession.
Hydrosphere All the water on and near Earth's surface
International Date Line An arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude. When you cross it going east towards America, you turn the clock back 24 hours. When you cross it going west toward Asia, you turn the clock forward 24 hours.
Lithosphere Earth's crust and a portion of the mantle directly below the crust
Location The position of anything on Earth's surface. Can be identified by name, site, and situation
Mental map A representation of a portion of the Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about the place and where the place is located
Network A chain of communication that connects places. For example, hub-and-spoke airplane networks feature a large hub airport with many flights to and from smaller cities.
Nonrenewable resource Something produced in nature more slowly than it is consumed by humans
Pattern The geometric/regular or irregular arrangement of a feature in a certain area
Place A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic
Polder Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area. They were first created in the 1200s but were mostly made by private developers in the 1500s and 1600s
Possibilism The theory that the physical environment may limit human actions, but that people can adjust the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
Preservation The maintenance of resources in their present condition, with as little human impact as possible
Projection A system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map. Can distort the shape of an area, the distance between areas, the relative sizes of areas, and the direction from one place to another.
Region An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
Regional (or cultural landscape) studies An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social/cultural and physical/natural phenomena in a particular area.
Relocation diffusion The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
Remote sensing The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods. Scans Earth's surface and transmits images in digital form to receiving stations on Earth.
Renewable resource Something produced in nature more rapidly than it is consumed by humans
Resource A substance in the environment that is useful to people, economically and technologically feasible to access, and socially acceptable to use
Scale The relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole
Site The physical character of a place
Situation The location of a place relative to another place
Space The physical gap or interval between two objects
Space-time compression The reduction of time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Stimulus diffusion The spread of an underlying principle even though a specific characteristic is rejected
Sustainability The use of Earth's renewable and nonrenewable resources in ways that do not constrain resource use in the future
Toponym The name given to a portion of Earth's surface
Transnational corporation A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just the one where its headquarters or shareholders are located
Uneven development The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
Vernacular/perceptual region An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
Eratosthenes The first person on record to use the word geography. Produced one of the earliest maps.
Pei Xiu The father of Chinese cartography. Produced an elaborate map of China.
Muhammad al-Idrisi Improved upon Ptolemy's work to produce a world map and geography text in 1154
Martin Waldseemuller Produced the first map with the label "America"
Abraham Ortelius Created the first modern atlas
Bernhardus Varenius Produced Geographia Generalis, which stood for more than a century as the standard treatise on systematic geography
The pillars of sustainability Environment - can the environment support a given action? Economy - the price of a resource depends on supply + demand and our ability to obtain that resource. Society - people need to use resource to survive, but consumers can support sustainability.
Ptolemy Produced maps the were not improved upon for more than 1,000 years, based on information collected by merchants and soldiers traveling through the Roman Empire
Created by: emilyjane1221
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