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AP Human Ch. 1 Vocab
Basic Concepts - AP Human Geography, Chapter 1, Rubenstein
|Composed of nonliving or inorganic matter
|The thin layer of gases surrounding Earth
|All living organisms on Earth, including plants and animals, as well as microorganisms
|Composed of living organisms
|The science of making maps
|The long-term average weather condition at a particular location
|The spread of something over a given area (can be clustered or dispersed)
|Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
|The sustainable management of a natural resource
|The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend
|A geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
|A combination of cultural, economic, and physical features that give a region its unified character
|The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that constitute a group's distinct tradition
|The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
|The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
|The process by which contact decreases and eventually disappears as distance increases. This is much less common in contemporary society because of increased connections and space-time compression.
|The arrangement of something across Earth's surface
|The scientific study of ecosystems
|A group of living organisms and the abiotic spheres in which they interact
|The belief that the physical environment causes social development
|The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in an additive process
|An area in which everyone shares one or more distinctive characteristic (AKA uniform or homogeneous region)
|An area organized around a node or focal point (AKA nodal region)
|Geographic information science (GIScience)
|The development and analysis of data about Earth acquired through satellite and other electronic information technologies
|Global Positioning System (GPS)
|A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers
|Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
|Greenwich Mean Time
|The time zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0 degrees longitude
|The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other people or places
|A rapid increase in the value of houses followed by a sharp decline in their value. When the housing bubble burst in the USA and Europe in 2008, it caused the first global recession.
|All the water on and near Earth's surface
|International Date Line
|An arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude. When you cross it going east towards America, you turn the clock back 24 hours. When you cross it going west toward Asia, you turn the clock forward 24 hours.
|Earth's crust and a portion of the mantle directly below the crust
|The position of anything on Earth's surface. Can be identified by name, site, and situation
|A representation of a portion of the Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about the place and where the place is located
|A chain of communication that connects places. For example, hub-and-spoke airplane networks feature a large hub airport with many flights to and from smaller cities.
|Something produced in nature more slowly than it is consumed by humans
|The geometric/regular or irregular arrangement of a feature in a certain area
|A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic
|Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area. They were first created in the 1200s but were mostly made by private developers in the 1500s and 1600s
|The theory that the physical environment may limit human actions, but that people can adjust the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
|The maintenance of resources in their present condition, with as little human impact as possible
|A system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map. Can distort the shape of an area, the distance between areas, the relative sizes of areas, and the direction from one place to another.
|An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
|Regional (or cultural landscape) studies
|An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social/cultural and physical/natural phenomena in a particular area.
|The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
|The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods. Scans Earth's surface and transmits images in digital form to receiving stations on Earth.
|Something produced in nature more rapidly than it is consumed by humans
|A substance in the environment that is useful to people, economically and technologically feasible to access, and socially acceptable to use
|The relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole
|The physical character of a place
|The location of a place relative to another place
|The physical gap or interval between two objects
|The reduction of time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
|The spread of an underlying principle even though a specific characteristic is rejected
|The use of Earth's renewable and nonrenewable resources in ways that do not constrain resource use in the future
|The name given to a portion of Earth's surface
|A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just the one where its headquarters or shareholders are located
|The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
|An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
|The first person on record to use the word geography. Produced one of the earliest maps.
|The father of Chinese cartography. Produced an elaborate map of China.
|Improved upon Ptolemy's work to produce a world map and geography text in 1154
|Produced the first map with the label "America"
|Created the first modern atlas
|Produced Geographia Generalis, which stood for more than a century as the standard treatise on systematic geography
|The pillars of sustainability
|Environment - can the environment support a given action? Economy - the price of a resource depends on supply + demand and our ability to obtain that resource. Society - people need to use resource to survive, but consumers can support sustainability.
|Produced maps the were not improved upon for more than 1,000 years, based on information collected by merchants and soldiers traveling through the Roman Empire